COMBAT CHRONOLOGY
US ARMY AIR FORCES
MEDITERRANEAN - 1943, PART 2


JULY 1943 - MEDITERRANEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS (MTO)

THURSDAY, 1 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): P-40's, along with Twelfth Air Force fighters, fly armored reconnaissance of S Sicily and convoy patrol in the Cap Bon, Tunisia area and off Kebili, Tunisia. Royal Air Force (RAF) Halifaxes hit Catania, Sicily railway yards. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): During the night of 30 Jun/l Jul, Wellingtons bomb barracks and railway station at Cagliari, Sicily. Northwest African Coastal Air Force (NACAF) flies patrol, reconnaissance, and convoy protection. The 8th Troop Carrier Squadron, 62d Troop Carrier Group transfers with C-47's from Matemore, Algeria to El Djem, Tunisia. The 18th Troop Carrier Squadron, 64th Troop Carrier Group transfers with C-47's from Blida, Algeria to Kairouan, Tunisia. The 28th Troop Carrier Squadron, 60th Troop Carrier Group transfers with C-47's from Thiersville, Algeria to El Djem, Tunisia. The 312th Bombardment Squadron (Dive), 86th Bombardment Group (Dive) transfers with A-36's from Tafaraoui, Algeria to Korba, Tunisia. During the month of July: HQ 52d Troop Carrier Wing transfers from Oujda, French Morocco to Kairouan, Tunisia, and HQ 62d Troop Carrier Group transfers from Matemore, Algeria to Goubrine, Tunisia, and The 1st and 2d Antisubmarine Squadrons (Heavy), 480th Antisubmarine Group (Heavy), AAF Antisubmarine Command, based at Port Lyautey, French Morocco operate from Agadir, French Morocco with B-24s. FRIDAY, 2 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-24's bomb airfields at Lecce, Grottaglie and San Pancrazio Salentino, Italy. In Sicily, B-25's hit the airfield and surrounding area at Sciacca; P-40's, escorting bombers to Sciacca, shoot down a fighter and damage 1. 2 P-40's are lost. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) Wellingtons hit Palermo and Cagliari during the night of 1/2 Jul; and Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) B-25's hit Castelvetrano during the day. Northwest African Coastal Air Force (NACAF) aircraft attack 2 vessels off the W coast of Italy and fly patrols, reconnaissance, and convoy protection. The air echelon of the 111th Reconnaissance Squadron (Fighter), 68th Reconnaissance Group transfers with P-51's from Bou Ficha, Tunisia to Korba, Tunisia. SATURDAY, 3 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-25's hit airfield at Comiso, Sicily. P-40's fly escort over Sicily and over Pantelleria Island in the Mediterranean, claiming destruction of 1 fighter. The 564th, 565th, 566th and 567th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 389th Bombardment Group (Heavy) based at Hethel, England begin operating with B-24's from Bengasi, Libya. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): During the night of 2/3 Jul, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) Wellingtons attack Olbia, Sardinia and Trapani, Sicily. The following day, B-17's and B-25's hit Chilivani, Italy, and the airfields at Monserrato and Alghero, Sardinia. In Sardinia, fighters hit radar stations at Pula and Alghero, while B-26's bomb the airfields at Milis and Capoterra. In Sicily, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) A-20's hit the area around Marsala and airfields at Sciaccay and Trapani. The ground echelon of the 111th Reconnaissance Squadron (Fighter), 68th Reconnaissance Group transfers from Nouvion, Algeria to Tunis, Tunisia. The air echelon is at Korba, Tunisia. The 309th Fighter Squadron, 31st Fighter Group transfers with Spitfires transfers from Korba, Tunisia to Gozo Island, Malta. SUNDAY, 4 JULY 1943 (INDEPENDENCE DAY) EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): Royal Air Force (RAF) Halifax aircraft bomb the Catania, Sicily. railroad yards during the night of 3/4 Jul. B-25's hit the airfield at Comiso, Sicily. P-40's escort bombers and convoy and fly sea-search for a missing pilot. Fighters claim 3 Bf 109's shot down. 4 P-40's are lost. The 86th and 87th Fighter Squadrons, 79th Fighter Group transfer with P-40's from Tunisia to Malta. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): During the night of 3/4 Jul, Wellingtons hit Trapani, Sicily and Lido di Roma, Italy. Leaflets are dropped in the Rome, Italy area. In Sicily, B-17's and B-26's hit the airfields at Catania and Gerbini; B-25's bomb 2 satellite airfields near Gerbini; and Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) A-20 and medium bombers hit airfields at Comiso, Trapani, Sciacca, and Castelvetrano. The 37th Fighter Squadron, 14th Fighter Group transfers with P-38's from Telergma, Algeria to El Bathan, Tunisia. MONDAY, 5 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, B-24's attack the harbor, harbor installations, railway yards, and oil storage at Messina while B-25's hit the airfields at Sciacca and Biscari. P-40's fly uneventful sea patrol. Royal Air Force (RAF) heavy bombers strike railroad yards at Catania, Sicily. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) Wellingtons bomb the airfields at Villacidro, Sardinia and Catania, Sicily during the night of 4/5 Jul. In Sicily, NASAF fighters, medium and heavy bombers hit main and satellite airfields at Gerbini and radar stations at Marsala and Licata; Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) light and medium bombers hit Sciacca and airfields at Trapani, Comiso and Biscari. Northwest African Coastal Air Force (NACAF) airplanes maintain sea patrol, reconnaissance, and convoy escort. TUESDAY, 6 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, B-24's strike satellite airfields at Gerbini; B-25's hit the airfields at Biscari and Gerbini while P-4O's escort bombers, patrol, and carry out dive-bombing operations. The 85th Fighter Squadron, 79th Fighter Group transfers with P-40's from Tunisia to Malta. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) Wellingtons hit Gerbini Airfield and 2 satellites during the night of 5/6 Jul; during predawn hours and throughout the day, light and medium bombers of Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) bomb airfields at Biscari, Sciacca, Trapani, and Comiso; NASAF B-17's again hit Gerbini Airfield and 3 satellite fields; B-25's bomb Biscari Airfield. Northwest African Coastal Air Force (NACAF) maintains sea patrol and convoy protection. WEDNESDAY, 7 JULY 1943 ANTISUBMARINE WARFARE (AAF Antisubmarine Command): The German sub, U-95l, is sunk in E Atlantic, 37-40N 15-30W, by a B-24 of the 1st Antisubmarine Squadron (Heavy). EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, B-24's hit airfields at Gerbini and the rail line N of Brucoli; and B-25's bomb the airfield and surrounding areas at Biscari and Comiso. P-40's bomb and strafe Lucca Airfield, Italy. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) Wellingtons bomb Palermo, Sicily and airfields at Villacidro, Milis, and Pabillonis, Sardinia during the night of 6/7 Jul. In Sicily during the day, B-17's, B-25's, and B-26's bomb Gerbini satellite fields and Bo Rizzo Airfield, as P-40's fly a diversionary sweep over the W part of Sicily; Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) A-20's hit Sciacca during the night of 6/7 Jul, and the following day bomb airfields at Trapani, Biscari, Comiso, Bo Rizzo, and Mazara del Vallo, and hit Sciacca, and Marsala radar stations, Caltanissetta and Porto Empedocle. THURSDAY, 8 JULY 1943 ANTISUBMARINE WARFARE (AAF Antisubmarine Command): German sub, U-232, is sunk off Portugal, 40-37N 13-4lW, by a B-24 of the 2d Antisubmarine Squadron (Heavy). EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, B-24's attack the Catania railway station, telegraph and telephone buildings, and industrial area; B-25's hit the airfields at Biscari and Comiso and nearby areas; and P-40's attack Biscari Airfield, escort bombers over Sicily, and carry out sea patrol. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) Wellingtons bomb airfields at Comiso and Catania during the night of 7/8 Jul. During the day, B-17's, B-25's, and B-26's make several strikes against Gerbini and its satellite fields; P-38's strafe radar installations in the E part of Sicily; Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) light bombers hit Sciacca Airfield while medium bombers hit airfields at Biscari and Comiso; A-36's attack trucks, a train, railroads, highways, a sulphur plant, and a marshalling yard at several points in Sicily. FRIDAY, 9 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-24's bomb airfields at Maleme, Crete, and Comiso and Taormina, Sicily. In Sicily, B-25's hit Sciacca landing ground and Biscari Airfield and dispersal areas while P-40's escort bombers over Castelvetrano, and Milo Airfields. This pre-invasion air bombardment of Sicily provides air superiority over the enemy. British and US airborne contingents are dropped on the island during the night of 9/10 Jul to help facilitate the amphibious assault of seaborne troops which are to land tomorrow morning. This is the first major airborne operation to be undertaken by the Allies in World War II, and subsequently becomes the subject of intensive study. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily during the night of 8/9 Jul, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) Wellingtons bomb the airfields at Catania, Gerbini, and Comiso, and throughout the following day B-17's, B-25's, B-26's, and fighters attack other targets, including Sciacca and Biscari Airfields, Gerbini satellite field, and Cape Passero Island radar stations; and Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) planes hit Sciacca and Milo Airfield during the night of 8/9 Jul, and on 9 Jul hit Milo and Biscari Airfields, Sciacca, Porto Empedocle, HQ at Taormina, a junction NE of Gela, the Canicatti area, and targets of opportunity. SATURDAY, 10 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, B-24's attack the marshalling yard at Catania and airfield at Vibo Valentia; and B-25's hit Palazzolo, Sciacca, Catania, Agrigento, Floridia, Giarratana, Biscari, Syracuse, and Piazza Armerina while fighters cover the assault beach areas. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily during the night of 9/10 Jul, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) Wellingtons bomb Catania, Syracuse, the Syracuse Isthmus seaplane base and the railroad station at Syracuse, and Caltagirone; North- west African Air Force Troop Carrier Command flies airborne operations to drop British and US paratroops; the US Seventh and British Eighth Armies make amphibious landings on the S and SE coast of Sicily. Northwest Afri- can Tactical Air Force (NATAF) A-36's hit railroads, road junctions, trains, and vehicles while P-40's fly cover for amphibious landinps. NATAF light and medium bombers hit airfields at Sciacca, Canicatti, Ponte Olivo, and Trapani, and towns and surrounding areas of Caltagirone and Palazzolo. Throughout the day NASAF B-17's and B-25's bomb Milo and Sciacca Airfields, Gerbini satellite fields, and towns of Palazzolo and Caltanissetta, Sicily. P-38's on sweep strafe radar installation. HQ 3d Air Defense Wing transfers from Tunisia to Licata, Sicily. SUNDAY, 11 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-24's hit airfields at Vibo Valentia, Sicily and Reggio di Calabria, Italy. In Sicily, B-25's hit airfields at Trapani, Milo and Bo Rizzo, and areas between Sciacca and Enna. P-40's escort bombers and provide beach cover as invasion forces push inland in Sicily. On the ground in Sicily, the US Seventh Army's II Corps is hit by a counterattack, mainly in the Gela region. The attack is repelled, but an airdrop of a contingent of 82d Airborne Division troops results in heavy casualties. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) planes hit Milo and Sciacca Airfields during the night of 10/11 Jul and numerous tactical targets during the day, including town areas, vehicle convoys, bridges, trains and roads; NASAF B-17's bomb the Catania marshalling yard while B-26's hit Milo Airfield and Gerbini satellite airfields; and B-25's and P-38's hit Sciacca Airfield and the town of Caltanissetta. Throughout the day NASAF fighters attack truck convoys on Sicilian highways, and hit gun positions and targets of opportunity. MONDAY, 12 JULY 1943 ANTISUBMARINE WARFARE (AAF Antisubmarine Command): A B-24 of the lst Antisubmarine Squadron (Heavy) sinks U-506 near Portugal at 42-30N 16-30W. EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Italy, B-24's attack the harbor, ferry slip, and marshalling yard at Reggio di Calabria, and the ferry slip and railroad yards at Villa San Giovanni. In Sicily, B-25's hit Bo Rizzo Airfield while P-40's patrol over the Licata area. On the ground in Sicily, with bridgeheads firmly established by the end of day, British and US troops make contact at Ragusa. Royal Air Force (RAF) heavy bombers bomb Reggio di Calabria Airfield, Italy. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily during the night of 11/12 Jul, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) Wellingtons pound Trapani, Marsala, Mazara del Vallo, and Montecorvino-Rovello Airfield and Northwest African Air Force Troop Carrier Command drops paratroops in front of the forward lines in the battle area; more than 20 C-47's fail to return from mission; during the following day, B-17's hit Messina railroad bridges, medium and light bombers hit Gerbini satellite field, Agrigento, Canicatti, and Milo Airfield. Fighters hit trucks, trains, troops, tanks, and other targets of opportunity during sweeps over Sicily. Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) fighters and light bombers hit Milo Airfield, Sicilian beaches, Termini harbor and town, Ninfa rail junction, several trains, numerous vehicles, and communications targets throughout Sicily. Northwest African Coastal Air Force (NACAF) aircraft fly convoy escort and carry out shipping strikes in Tyrrhenian Sea and W of Corsica and Sardinia. HQ XII Air Support Command transfers from Tunisia to Sicily. TUESDAY, 13 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-24's strike airfields at Crotone, Italy and Vibo Valentia, Sicily. In Sicily, B-25's attack the Leonforte road and harbor at Termini; and P-40's patrol the Licata area. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily during the night of 12/13 Jul, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) Wellingtons hit Caltanissetta, Gerbini Airfield, and Enna. During the day, B-17's, B-25's, B-26's, and fighters attack Enna, Milo Airfield, Carcitella landing ground, Randazzo, and targets of opportunity. Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) aircraft hit truck convoys, trains, railway stations, troops, and numerous targets of opportunity over wide areas in Sicily. Northwest African Coastal Air Force (NACAF) continues sea patrols, reconnaissance, and convoy protec- tion and attack ship convoy NE of Palermo, Sicily. On the ground in Sicily, the British effort to break out onto Catania Plain by establishing bridgehead over Simeto River near Lentini is firmly opposed. HQ 31st Fighter Group and it's 309th Fighter Squadron transfer with Spitfires from Gozo Island, Malta to Ponte Olivo, Sicily. The air echelon of the 23d Photographic Squadron (Light), 5th Photo- grahic Reconnaissance and Mapping Group arrives at La Marsa, Tunisia from the US with F-5's. The ground echelon is still at Colorado Springs, Colorado and will not leave the US until 8 Aug; they will arrive at La Marsa on 8 Sep. WEDNESDAY, 14 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, B-24's and Royal Air Force (RAF) heavy bombers hit rail- road, marshalling yard, harbor, and oil storage facilities at Messina; B-25's hit the Enna and Palermo areas; and P-40's patrol Licata and attack the Lentini area. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily during the night of 13/14 Jul, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) Wellingtons bomb Palermo and Messina, and C-47's drop paratroops in advance of Allied troops to secure a bridge at Primosole. Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) aircraft hit ammo dumps, trains, rail junctions, bridges, vehicle convoys, and other targets of opportunity in the Sicilian countryside, and bomb several town areas including Enna and Palermo during several raids throughout the night of 13/14 Jul and the following day. During the day, B-17's, B-26's, B-25's, and fighters hit Naples, Italy and Messina, Enna, Marsala, and Randazzo, and numerous targets of opportunity in Sicily. Northwest African Coastal Air Force (NACAF) continues sea patrols, reconnaissance, and convoy protection. On the ground in Sicily, British forces attempting to establish a bridgehead at the Primosole bridge on the Simeto River near Lentini continue to face strong opposition. The detachment of the 15th Photographic Squadron (Heavy), 3d Photo- graphic Reconnaissance and Mapping Group, operating from Le Kroub, Algeria with B-17's and F-5's returns to it's base at La Marsa, Tunisia. The air echelon of the 111th Reconnaissance Squadron (Fighter), 68th Reconnaissance Group, transfers from Korba, Tunisia to Ponte Olivo, Sicily with P-51's. The ground echelon will remain at Tunis, Tunisia until Friday. The 307th and 308th Fighter Squadrons, 31st Fighter Group, transfer with Spitfires from Gozo Island, Malta to Ponte Olivo, Sicily. THURSDAY, 15 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-24's strike main airfield and 2 satellite fields at Foggia, Italy. In Sicily, B-25's bomb Palermo, Cape Gallo, Salina Island, and Cape Zifferano; and P-40's patrol over the Licata area. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): During the night of 14/16 Jul, Wellingtons of the Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) hit airfields and docks at Naples, Italy while Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) light and medium bombers bomb Palermo, Sicily and fly armored reconnaissance, attacking roads and convoys, over extensive areas of Sicily. During the day, NASAF medium bombers bomb Vibo Valentia, Sicily, while heavy bombers hit Villa San Giovanni, Italy. NASAF fighters fly numerous strafing and bombing missions against trains, road junctions, radar installations, truck convoys, railway stations, and targets of opportunity throughout Sicily. Northwest African Coastal Air Force (NACAF) airplanes fly sea patrols, reconnaissance, convoy escort, and hit shipping off the W coast of Corsica and E coast of Sardinia. FRIDAY, 16 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-24's attack Bari Airfield, Italy; enemy fighters attack persistently and 3 B-24's are shot down; they claim 11 fighters destroyed in combat. B-25's bomb Randazzo and Valguarnera, Sicily. Royal Air Force (RAF) heavy bombers hit Reggio di Calabria Airfield, Italy. HQ 79th Fighter Group transfers from Tunisia to Sicily. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): During the night of 15/16 Jul, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) Wellingtons bomb the dock, marshalling yards, and airfields at Vibo Valentia, Sicily and Crotone, Reggio di Calabria, and Villa San Giovanni, Italy, while Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) light and medium bombers carry out numerous missions against Randazzo, Sicily and roads in Sicily. During the day NATAF fighters, light and medium bombers bomb Valguarnera, Sicily and targets of opportunity in north central Sicily. On the ground in Sicily, British troops establish a bridgehead across the Simeto River. The ground echelon of the 111th Reconnaissance Squadron (Fighter), 68th Reconnaissance Group, transfers from Tunis, Tunisia to Ponte Olivo, Sicily joining the air echelon which arrived on Tuesday. The air echelon of the 414th Night Fighter Squadron, 2d Air Defense Wing, which has been training in England with Beaufighters, joins the ground echelon at Rerhaia, Algeria. The squadron will enter combat on 24 Jul. SATURDAY, 17 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): About 80 B-24's bomb the Naples, Italy marshalling yard in face of fierce fighter opposition; 1 B-24 is shot down and several are damaged; they claim 23 fighters destroyed in combat. In Sicily, B-25's hit Catania and the rail yards and roads at Paterno; and P-40's fly escort to Gela and Comiso. Royal Air Force (RAF) heavy bombers hit Reggio di Calabria, Italy. The 87th Fighter Squadron, 79th Fighter Group, transfers with P-40's from Malta to Sicily. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily during the night of 16/17 Jul and the following day North- west African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) fighters, light and medium bombers, hit Catania, Paterno, the Riposto railroad station, and targets of opportunity (vehicles, tanks, trains, guns). During the day, 200+ B-25's, B-26's, and B-17's bomb Naples, Italy, concentrating on the marshalling yard. On the ground in Sicily, the US 45th and 1st Infantry Divisions cross the Salso River S and E of Caltanissetta. The British 30 Corps expands the Simeto River bridgehead and drives toward Catania in the coastal sector while 51 Division crosses the Simeto River and reaches to within 10 miles (16 km) of Paterno. HQ 350th Fighter Group and it's 345th Fighter Squadron transfer with P-39's from Maison Blance, Algeria to Rerhaia, Algeria. SUNDAY, 18 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-25's bomb Randazzo and Catania, Sicily. The 85th and 86th Fighter Squadrons, 79th Fighter Group, transfer with P-40's from Malta to Sicily. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): During the night of 17/18 Jul, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) Wellingtons bomb airfields at Montecorvino, Sicily and Pomiglian- o, Italy, while Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) light bombers bomb Catania, Sicily and carry out reconnaissance of extensive areas of Sicily. During the day, NATAF A-36's hit Santa Caterina, Adrano, Lercara, and Termini Imerese, Sicily. On the ground in Sicily, the US Seventh Army makes rapid progress against light opposition. The British Eighth Army continues their advance, but 13 Corps continues to meet strong resistance near Catania. HQ 27th Bombardment Group (Ligth) and it's 16th, 17th and 91st Bombardment Squadrons (Light) transfer with A-36's from Korba, Tunisia to Sicily. The 27th will be redesignated the 27th Fighter-Bomber Group on 23 Aug 43; the 16, 17th and 91st will be redesignated the 522d, 523d and 524th Fighter-Bomber Squadrons respectively. HQ 33d Fighter Group transfers from Pantelleria Island in the Medi- terranean to Licata, Sicily. MONDAY, 19 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): 100+ B-24's attack the Littoria, Italy marshalling yards and nearby airfield. On the return flight railroads at Orlando, Sicily and Anzio, Italy are bombed. B-25's hit Catania and Randazzo, Sicily. P-40's escort C-47's. The 64th, 65th and 66th Fighter Squadrons, 57th Fighter Group, transfer with P-40's from Malta to Sicily. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): During the night of 18/19 Jul, Wellingtons drop over 800,000 leaflets on Rome, Italy. Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) light bombers attack Catania, Sicily. During the following day, about 150 Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-17's bomb the Rome, Italy railroad yards; B-25's and B-26's hit nearby Ciampino Airfield, Italy; P-40's bomb rail facilities in the Alcamo, Sicily area; and NATAF A-36's attack trains and motor transport in W Sicily. On the ground in Sicily, the US Seventh Army continues to push N and NW while the British Eighth Army's 13 Corps still faces firm resistance near Catania. The 111th Reconnaissance Squadron (Fighter), 68th Reconnaissance Group, transfers with P-51's from Ponte Olivo, Sicily to Gela, Sicily. The 308th Fighter Squadron, 31st Fighter Group, transfers with Spitfires from Ponte Olivo, Sicily to Agrigento, Sicily. TUESDAY, 20 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, B-25's attack Randazzo and Taormina; and Royal Air Force (RAF) heavy bombers hit Vibo Valentia Airfield. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): During the night of 19/20 Jul, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) Wellingtons bomb Aquino, Sicily and Capodichino, Italy Airfields while Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) medium and light bombers attack vehicles, roads, and town areas around and in Randazzo, Santo Stefano di Camastra, Orlando, and Nicosia, Sicily. During the day, NASAF fighter-bombers attack targets of opportunity in W Sicily while NASAF medium bombers strike Montecorvino Airfield. On the ground in Sicily, the US Seventh Army and British Eighth Army continue to push NW and N. The US 82d Airborne Division takes Sciacca and Menfi; the US 9d Infantry Division clears Santo Stefano Quisquina and the heights N of Mussomeli; the US 2d Armored Division, with British units, takes Enna and drives on to Villapriolo. The Canadian 1 Division pushes to the Leonforte area; the British 51 Division attacks the German air- field near Sferro; 13 Corps is halted by strong opposition on the Catania Plain. HQ 86th Fighter Group transfers from Korba, Tunisia to Gela, Sicily. The 12th Photographic Squadron (Light), 3d Photographic Reconnaissance and Mapping Group, based at Ariana, Tunisia begins operating from Gela and Ponte Olivo, Sicily with F-4's. The 309th Bombardment Squadron (Dive), 86th Bombardment Group (Dive) transfers with A-36's from Tafaraoui, Algeria to Gela, Sicily. The 310th and 312th Bombardment Squadrons (Dive) of the same group transfer from Korba, Tunisia to Gela with A-36's. WEDNESDAY, 21 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, about 20 B-25's bomb Randazzo and P-40's escort C-47's to Licata and return. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): During the night of 20/21 Jul, Wellingtons of the Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) hit Crotone Airfield and the Naples marshal- ling yard in Italy; Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) light bombers hit motor transport convoys in the Randazzo, Sicily area. During the day, NASAF B-17's bomb Grosseto Airfield, Italy. On the ground in Sicily, US Rangers seize Castelvetrano and the airport; the US 82d Airborne Division takes San Margherita and the US 3d Infantry Division takes Corleone; the US 45th Infantry Division, pushing NW, takes Valledolmo; and the US lst Infantry Division clears Alimena. In the British 30 Corps area, the Canadian l Division takes Leonforte. HQ 31st Fighter Group transfers from Ponte Olivo, Sicily to Agrigento, Sicily. HQ 47th Bombardment Group (Light) and it's 84th Bombardment Squadron (Light) transfer with A-20's from Soliman, Tunisia to Malta. The 307th and 309th Fighter Squadrons, 31st Fighter Group, transfer with Spitfires from Ponte Olivo, Sicily to Agrigento, Sicily. THURSDAY, 22 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): P-40's escort C-47's to Ponte Olivo, Sicily. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): During the night of 21/22 Jul, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) Wellingtons bomb Capodichino Airfield and Salerno marshalling yard in Italy. In Sicily, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) light bombers hit Randazzo, the railroad at Falcone, and the road W of Marina. In Italy during the day, 100+ B-17's bomb the Battipaglia mar- shalling yard and Foggia; B-26's hit a Salerno bridge and marshalling yard; and fighters fly a sweep over Maddalena Island, strafing factories, trucks, and small vessels. In Sicily, NATAF light bombers bomb Adrano, Paterno, Troina, and Misterbianco. On the ground in Sicily, US Seventh Army troops take Palermo; and the 1st Infantry Division continues N, taking Bompietro. The 85th and 86th Bombardment Squadrons (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light), transfer from Soliman, Tunisia to Malta with A-20's. FRIDAY, 23 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): P-40's escort C-47's to Licata, Sicily. Royal Air Force (RAF) heavy bombers hit Reggio di Calabria, Italy Airfield. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-17's, B-25's, and B-26's bomb Leverano and Crotone, Italy, and Aquino Airfield, Sicily. In Sicily, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) medium bombers and fighters bomb and strafe Misterbianco, transport in the Nicosia-Troina- Randazzo areas, and bridges and landing craft in the coastal area around Santo Stefano di Camastra and Orlando. On the ground in Sicily, the US Seventh Army mops up in W Sicily. The British Eighth Army's 30 Corps meets firm opposition as it moves E from Leonforte. HQ XII Bomber Command transfers from Constantine, Algeria to Tunis, Tunisia. The 97th Bombardment Squadron (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light) transfers with A-20's from Soliman, Tunisia to Malta. A detachment of the 414th Night Fighter Squadron, 2d Air Defense Wing, based at Rerhaia, Algeria begins operating from Protville, Tunisia with Beaufighters. The squadron will fly it's first combat mission tomorrow. A detachment of the 415th Night Fighter Squadron, 1st Air Defense Wing, based at Monastir, Tunisia begins operating from Protville, Tunisia with Beaufighters. SATURDAY, 24 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, P-40's fly armored reconnaissance and fighter-bomber missions over the Adrano and Milazzo areas. The attacks are concentrated against motor transport targets. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-17's and B-25's bomb the railroad yards at Bologna and B-26's hit the railroad yards at Paola. In Sicily, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) fighter-bombers hit barges, warships, and docks in the Messina-Milazzo area and transport NE of Mount Etna. On the ground in Sicily, the US Seventh Army continues to mop up the W part of Sicily. Further E, the US 45th Infantry Division takes Cefalu and Castelbuono while the US 1st Infantry Division seizes Gangi and heads toward Nicosia. SUNDAY, 25 JULY 1943 ITALY King Victor Emmanuel III announces the fall of the Benito Mussolini government. Marshall Pietro Badoglio becomes premier and takes command of the Italian army. EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, B-25's bomb docks and shipping at Milazzo; almost 100 P-40's strafe and bomb Milazzo, Taormina, and Catania harbor. Other P-40's escort C-47's. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF), medium and light bombers, and fighters during night and day raids, attack shipping and docks at Milazzo and in the Santo Stefano di Camastra-Orlando area, and hit roads and motor transport, bridges and armor concentration in the Orlando-Adrano-Troina-Nicosia areas. On the ground in Sicily, the US Seventh Army makes slow progress along the N coastal road, while the British Eighth Army's 30 Corps takes part in hard fighting in the Agira area. HQ 1st Air Defense Wing transfers from Sousse, Tunisia to Palermo, Sicily. This unit will be redesignated the 62d Fighter Wing on 7 Aug 43. HQ 14th Fighter Group transfers from El Bathan, Tunisia to Ste-Marie- du-Zit, Tunisia. MONDAY, 26 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, B-25's bomb Milazzo, Paterno, and Adrano; and P-40's strafe and bomb Catania and shipping at Riposto harbor. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily during the night of 25/26 Jul, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) medium bombers attack Milazzo, Adrano, and Paterno; throughout the day light bombers hit Regalbuto at intervals, and fighter- bombers harrass shipping, rail, and road movements. Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-26's bomb the Marina di Paola, Italy marshalling yard. HQ 64th Troop Carrier Group and it's 16th, 17th, 18th and 35th Troop Carrier Squadrons transfer from Kairouan, Tunisia to El Djem, Tunisia with C-47's. The 7th Troop Carrier Squadron, 62d Troop Carrier Group, transfers from El Djem, Tunisia to Gourbrine, Tunisia with C-47's. The 37th Fighter Squadron, 14th Fighter Group, transfers from El Bathan, Tunisia to Ste-Marie-du-Zit, Tunisia with P-38's. TUESDAY, 27 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): P-40's attack tactical targets in battle area in NE Sicily, and others hit shipping at Catania, Sicily. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-17's hit the airfield at Capua and the railroad at Lioni, Italy. B-25's and B-26's bomb the landing ground at Scalea, Sicily. Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) fighters and light bombers continue bombing and strafing of ports, shipping, bridges, landing grounds, and motor transport in Sicily as the US Seventh Army reaches Tusa and San Mauro and pushes toward Nicosia. The 307th Fighter Squadron, 31st Fighter Group, transfers from Agrigento, Sicily to Palermo, Sicily with Spitfires. The 309th Bombardment Squadron (Light), 86th Bombardment Group (Light), transfers from Gela, Sicily to Barcelona, Sicily. This squadron will be redesignated the 525th Fighter-Bomber Squadron on 23 Aug 43. WEDNESDAY, 28 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, almost 100 P-40's hit shipping at Catania and Santa Teresa di Riva, fly patrol over the Straits of Messina, and bomb encampments. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) fighters sweep over S Sardinia. In Sicily, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) light bombers hit Regalbuto, Milazzo, and Centuripe; A-36's and P-40's hit heavy traffic on the Troina-Randazzo road, bridges and roads N and W of Cesaro, the landing ground at Falcone, and buildings near Randazzo. On the ground in Sicily, the US Seventh Army takes Nicosia and pushes toward Santo Stefano di Camastra. The British Eighth Army takes Agira. Allied cargo vessels begin arriving at Palermo, and Lieutenant General Harold R Alexander, 15 Army Group Commanding General, moves his HQ to Sicily. HQ 320th Bombardment Group and it's 443d Bombardment Squadron (Medi- um) transfer from Massicault, Tunisia to El Bathan, Tunisia with B-26's. The 8th Troop Carrier Squadron, 62d Troop Carrier Group, transfers from El Djem, Tunisia to Gourbrine, Tunisia with C-47's. The 99th Fighter Squadron, XII Air Support Command, transfers from Fardjouna, Tunisia to Licata, Sicily with P-40's. THURSDAY, 29 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, 200+ P-40's, to date the largest number of fighters operating in 1 day during the Sicilian campaign, attack Messina Riposto, shipping at Catania, Santa Teresa di Riva, Taormina, Milazzo, and in the Straits of Messina. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-26's hit Aquino Air- field, Sicily. B-17's bomb Viterbo Airfield, Italy. In Sicily, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) fighters and light bombers hit Regalbuto, Milazzo, shipping off Messina, and gun positions and motor transport in NE Sicily. On the ground in Sicily, the US Seventh Army almost completes the mopup of W Sicily, approaches Santo Stefano Quisquina, advances on Mistretta, and takes 3 islands off Trapani. The British Eighth Army opens an assault during the night of 29/30 Jul along an axis of Catenanuova-Adrano. The detachment of the 414th Night Fighter Squadron, 2d Air Defense Wing, operating from Protville, Tunisia with Beaufighters returns to it's base at Rerhaia, Algeria. The 415th Night Fighter Squadron, 1st Air Defense Wing, transfers from Monastir, Tunisia to La Sebala, Tunisia with Beaufighters. The detachment at Protville, Tunisia also transfers. The 441st, 442d and 444th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium), 320th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfer from Massicault, Tunisia to El Bathan, Tunisia with B-26's. FRIDAY, 30 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, 100+ P-40's attack shipping at Milazzo, Messina, and Riposto, and hit targets in the battle area. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-17's bomb Grottaglie Airfield and B-25's hit the airfield at Pratica di Mare. In Sicily, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) A-20's bomb Milazzo and hit gun positions N and E of Centuripe and fighters hit shipping off Milazzo. On the ground in Sicily, the enemy evacuates Santo Stefano Quisquina, with a rear guard action. The British take Catenanuova and push on to the NE. SATURDAY, 31 JULY 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): P-40's fly escort missions and hit shipping in the Milazzo, Sicily area. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-26's bomb Adrano; Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) fighters, light and medium bombers hit Paterno, Santa Maria di Licondia and Centuripe, the general area around Paterno, and vessels in the Milazzo-Orlando area. On the ground in Sicily, US ground forces prepare to attack E along the coast, and further inland press toward Troina. The British, to the S, are fiercely opposed W of Regalbuto. HQ 42d Bombardment Wing (Medium) is transferred without personnel and equipment from the US to North Africa. Groups will be assigned in Aug 43. HQ 2d Bombardment Group (Heavy) and it's 20th Bombarmdent Squadron (Heavy) transfer with B-17's from Ain M'lila, Algeria to Massicault, Tunisia.

AUGUST 1943 - MEDITERRANEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS (MTO)

SUNDAY, 1 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Rumania, 177 B-24's, of the IX Bomber Command (including B-24's on loan from the Eighth Air Force) are dispatched to bomb oil refineries at Ploesti and nearby Campina. The oper- ation (TIDALWAVE) is costly, 54 planes and 532 airmen are lost, but damage to the targets is severe. 5 Medal of Honors are awarded for this mission. In Sicily, 230+ P-40's, the largest Ninth Air Force total to date, attack Adrano, the area near Randazzo, Messina, Milazzo, Taormina, and shipping in the Straits of Messina. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): During the night of 31 Jul/l Aug Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) Wellingtons drop leaflets on Rome and Naples, Italy, and bomb Randazzo and Adrano, Sicily. During the following day, B-17's bomb Capodichino Airfield, Italy, and B-25's hit Milazzo, Sicily. In Sicily, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) light and medium bombers hit Paterno, Randazzo, Adrano, Bronte, Santa Maria di Licondia, and motor transport in the Orlandoarea area. Northwest African Coastal Air Force (NACAF) Beaufighters score hits on shipping between Sardinia and Italy. On the ground in Sicily, US ground forces advance E along the coast, approach Troina further inland, and begin a movement to flank defenses. The British, to the S, penetrate into Regalbuto. During the month of August, the 3d Air Defense Wing (64th Fighter Wing effective 7 Aug 43) transfers from Licata to Gela, Sicily. HQ 97th Bombardment Group (Heavy) transfers from Chateau-dun-du-Rhumel, Algeria to Pont-du-Fahs, Tunisia. The 2d, 4th and 5th Fighter Squadrons, 52d Fighter Group transfer from La Sebala, Tunisia to Boccadifalco, Sicily with Spitfires. The 307th Fighter Squadron, 31st Fighter Group, transfers from Palermo to Termini, Sicily with Spitfires. The 429th Bombarmdent Squadron (Heavy), 2d Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers from Ain M'lila, Algeria to Massicault, Tunisia with B-17's. MONDAY, 2 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, P-40's attack ship- ping in the Straits of Messina and off Milazzo. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily, North- west African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) fighters, and light and medium bombers hit trucks, a dump and road junction in NE Sicily, docks and ship- ping at Milazzo, Messina and in the Reggio di Calabria, Italy area, and targets of opportunity (mainly motor transport) from Barcellona S to Adrano. On the ground in Sicily, US ground forces push slowly W while British troops gain control of Regalbuto and fight indecisively in the streets of Centuripe. HQ 12th Bombardment Group (Medium) and it's 81st, 82d, 83d and 434th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium) with B-25's transfer from Hergla, Tunisia to Ponte Olivio, Sicily. HQ 31st Fighter Group transfers from Agrigento to Termini, Sicily. HQ 340th Bombardment Group (Medium) and it's 488th and 489th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium) transfer from Hergla, Tunisia to Comiso, Sicily with B-25's. The 308th Fighter Squadron, 31st Fighter Group transfers from Agrigento to Termini, Sicily with Spitfires. TUESDAY, 3 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, B-25's bomb Adrano and its highway approaches; and 300+ P-40's, the largest Ninth Air Force total to date, attack harbors and shipping at Milazzo and Messina, and give direct support to British ground forces in the Catania-Bronte area. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily, North- west African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) light bombers hit tactical targets; and fighters, light and medium bombers hit shipping in the Straits of Messina and at Milazzo and attack Adrano and Biancavilla and gun emplace- ments and bridges in the area. On the ground in Sicily, US forces continue E along the N coast toward the Furiano River. At Troina, further inland, the enemy continues firm resistance. HQ 82d Fighter Group transfers from Souk-el-Arba, Algeria to Grombalia, Tunisia. The 414th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 97th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers with B-17's from Chateaudun-du-Rhumel, Algeria to Pont-du-Fahs, Tunisia. The 486th and 487th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium), 340th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfer with B-25's from Hergla, Tunisia to Comiso, Sicily. WEDNESDAY, 4 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, P-40's attack ship- ping at Messina and support ground forces at the N end of Mount Etna. On the ground in Sicily, US troops are halted by fierce opposition at the Furiano River and at Troina. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-17's bomb the submarine base at Naples; B-26's and B-25's hit the railroad bridge at Cantanzaro and rail- road at Paola. In Sicily, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) medium and light bombers, and fighters attack communications targets, gun positions, and storage areas in the Milazzo-Adrano-Biancavilla and Bronte- Riposto-Fiumefreddo areas. A number of NATAF aircraft hit rail sidings on the toe of Italy and attack shipping off Messina, Sicily. On the ground in Sicily, the British cross the Salso River with 2 divisions, while other forces prepare to drive on Catania and others continue toward Misterbianco. HQ 99th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and it's 347th and 348th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy) transfer with B-17's from Navarin, Algeria to Oudna, Tunisia. The 95th, 96th and 97th Fighter Squadrons, 82d Fighter Group, transfer from Souk-el-Arba, Algeria to Grombalia, Tunisia with P-38's. THURSDAY, 5 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, B-25's bomb the town, roads, and road junctions of Francavilla and shipping in the Straits of Messina. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) fighters and light and medium bombers attack troops, roads, and gun positions at Adrano and Troina and surround- ing areas in support of Allied ground forces, hit motor transport behind enemy lines in Sicily and on the toe of Italy, and sink or damage over 20 small vessels and barges at Milazzo and in the Straits of Messina; and Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-17's, operating in 2 forces, hit the docks and railroad yards at Messina. B-25's bomb a switching station at Guspini, Sardinia, and P-40's, after escorting the B-25's, attack and probably sink a U-boat off SW Sardinia. On the ground in Sicily, US forces open an assault on the San Fratello ridge, and further inland gain positions overlooking Troina. The enemy withdraws from the town during the night. The British 13 Corps overruns Paterno, Misterbianco, and Catania; the British 30 Corps continues toward Adrano. HQ 310th Bombardment Group (Medium) and it's 379th, 380th, 381st and 428th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium) transfer with B-25's from Dar el Koudia to Menzel Temime, Tunisia. The 91st Fighter Squadron, 81st Fighter Group, transfers with P-39's from Sfax to Sidi Ahmed, Tunisia. The 309th Fighter Squadron, 31st Fighter Group, transfers with Spitfires from Agrigento to Termini, Sicily. The 346th and 416th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 99th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfer from Navarin, Algeria to Oudna, Tunisia with B-17's. FRIDAY, 6 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, 60+ B-26's hit Bronte, Catania, and Randazzo and the area N of the Adrano-Biancavilla road; 20+ others bomb road intersections in Adrano and Bronte; and 100+ P-40's attack shipping and shore targets in the Messina area while 30 others attack shipping on the W coast. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-17's bomb coastal roads near Messina; B-26's and B-25's hit a road junction SW of Badiazza and railroad bridges N of Gesso; Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) light and medium bombers hit roads, junctions, and buildings in the Troina, Adrano, Bianca- villa, Tortorici, Bronte, Piranino, and Randazzo areas and the Bagnara, Italy area; and fighter-bombers hit shipping from Vibo Valentia S to the Straits of Messina. On the ground in Sicily, US troops are unable to cross the Furiano River as fierce resistance continues. At Troina, troops push through the town and 1 mile (1.6 km) to the E before opposition halts them. The British take Biancavilla, and Adrano falls as the enemy pulls out during the night of 6/7 Aug. HQ 301st Bombardment Group (Heavy) and it's 32d, 353d and 419th Bombard- ment Squadrons (Heavy) transfer with B-17's from St-Donat, Algeria to Oudna, Tunisia. SATURDAY, 7 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, 150 B-25's attack Randazzo; and 140+ P-40's attack shipping at Messina and in the Straits, and shipping and shore-supply stores along the NE coast. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Sicily throughout the day Northwest African Tactical Bomber Force (NATBF) medium and light bombers pound Randazzo, the enemy's key withdrawal point; Maletto is also bombed; P-40's and A-36's strafe and bomb small craft between Sicily and mainland Italy, motor transport near Randazzo, a warehouse N of Messina, dumps on the toe of Italy, and vehicles and communications targets in the Sant' Agata di Militello, Bronte, Cesaro, Tortorici, Castiglione di Sicilia and Riposto areas. In Italy, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-25's in 2 forces hit the landing ground at Crotone while B-26's bomb the railroad bridge at Marina di Cantanzaro and highway bridge over the Angi- tola River. On the ground in Sicily, US forces improve their positions on the N coast in the San Fratello region against heavy resistance. During the night of 7/8 Aug, a small amphibious force lands on the coast 2 miles (3.2 km) E of Sant' Agata di Militello, greatly aiding progress along the coast. Other forces begin a drive on Randazzo. HQ 5th Bombardment Wing transfers from Chateaudun, Algeria to Depienne, Tunisia. HQ 47th Bombardment Wing (Medium) transfers from Souk-el-Arba to Hamma- met, Tunisia. SUNDAY, 8 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, 90+ B-25's bomb the Randazzo area; 130+ P-40's hit shipping at Messina and provide ground support in NE Sicily as US and British forces push E and N, capturing Sant' Agata di Militello, Monte Camolato, and Bronte. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-26's hit highway and rail bridges at Angi- tola, Italy, while P-38's strafe trains and other targets of opportunity SW of the town. In Sicily, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) light and medium bombers pound Randazzo; fighters hit road targets N of Etna, shipping in the Straits of Messina and cover ground forces at Sant' Agata di Militello. HQ 63d Fighter Wing transfers from Maison Blanche to Rerhaia, Algeria. HQ 321st Bombardment Group (Medium) transfers from Souk-el-Arba to Soli- man, Tunisia. The 352d Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 301st Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers with B-17's from St-Donat, Algeria to Oudna, Tunisia. The 416th Night Fighter Squadron, Twelfth Air Force, arrives at Algiers, Algeria from England where it trained with Beaufighters. The 417th Night Fighter Squadron, Twelfth Air Force, arrives at Tafara- oui, Algeria from England where it trained with Beaufighters. The squadron flies it's first combat mission today. The 445th, 447th and 448th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium), 321st Bombard- ment Group (Medium), transfer with B-25's from Souk-el-Arba to Soliman, Tunisia. MONDAY, 9 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, B-25's hit Divieto and a nearby tunnel W of Spadafora San Martino, and attack special points in the battle area of NE Sicily; P-40's hit shipping at Messina, Milazzo, and Palmi. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-17's bomb crossroads N of Messina, Sicily. In Itlay, B-25's hit Cantanzaro and Soverato River bridges, B-26's attack Angitola River bridges, P-40's sweep over S Sardinia, and P-38's hit a lighthouse and other targets of opportunity in S Italy. In Sicily, North- west African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) bombers hit the Gesso road junc- tion; fighters concentrate on highways and junctions and also hit rall sidings and gun positions in areas around Linguaglossa, Floresta, Falcone, Patti, Orlando, Novara di Sicilia, and Milazzo. On the ground in Sicily, US troops reach Torrenuovo, and, to the S, drive the enemy back to the Simeto River between Cesaro and Randazzo. HQ 47th Bombardment Group (Light) transfers from Malta to Torrente Comu- nelli, Sicily. The 446th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 321st Bombardment Group (Medium), transfers with B-25's from Souk-el-Arba to Soliman, Tunisia. TUESDAY, 10 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-25's attack Randazzo, Sicily while P-40's bomb and strafe shipping on the SW coast of Italy and in the Straits of Messina. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): Brigadier General Ray A Dunn takes command of the Northwest African Air Force Troop Carrier Command (Provisional). In Italy, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) P-38's bomb and strafe communications targets on the toe of Italy; and bridges at Angitola and N of Locri are attacked. Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) planes fly anti-shipping sweeps over coastal areas of NE Sicily and the Straits of Messina, carry out armored reconnais- sance over the battle areas and toe of Italy, and bomb Randazzo, Sicily. On the ground in Sicily, US Seventh Army forces pursue the enemy to a point W of Naso near the N coast. During the night of 10/11 Aug, the US 3d Infantry Division makes an amphibious landing on the coast, outflanking the enemy E of Capo d'Orlando. The US 9th Infantry Division reaches a point N of Bronte. HQ Twelfth Air Force transfers from Algeria to Tunisia. HQ 81st Fighter Group transfers from Monastir to Sidi Ahmed, Tunisia. The 84th Bombardment Squadron (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light), transfers from Malta to Torrente Comunelli, Sicily with A-20's. The 342d Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 97th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers from Chateaudun-du-Rhumel, Algeria to Pont-du-Fahs, Tunisia with B-17's. WEDNESDAY, 11 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, 90+ B-25's bomb a bridge, roads, railway, and the city area in and about Randazzo. About 170 P-40's hit Randazzo, shipping at Milazzo and Messina, roads and trains near Messina, and troop movements and evacuations in NE Sicily. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, the North- west African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) again hits communications targets on the toe of Italy; B-17's hit the marshalling yard at Terni, B-25's bomb the Angitola River bridges and B-26's and P-38's attack a bridge at Cantan- zaro. Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) fighter-bombers support the US Seventh Army's landing E of Orlando, Sicily by attacking troop con- centrations, gun positions, and communications lines leading to the area. On the ground in Sicily, US Seventh Army forces take Naso and press closer to Randazzo. Medium bombers support the British Eighth Army by raiding the Fiumefreddo and Randazzo areas. The 111th Reconnaissance Squadron (Fighter), 68th Reconnaissance Group, transfers from Gela to Termini, Sicily with P-51's. A detachment continues to operate from Gela until Sep 43. The 341st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 97th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers from Chateaudun-du-Rhumel, Algeria to Pont-du-Fahs, Tunisia with B-17's. THURSDAY, 12 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, 79 B-25's attack Falcone, Patti, Novara di Sicilia, and Barcellona; P-40's bomb and strafe shipping at Messina. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-25's attack landing grounds at Cro- tone, and B-26's hit Grazzanise Airfield; they claim 9 fighters shot down. In Sicily, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) P-40's and A-36's hit shipping along the NE coast and in the Straits of Messina, attack gun positions and vehicles at Capo Calava and E of Randazzo, and hit a bridge at Taormina and roads in the Maletto-Fiumefreddo areas; NATAF bombers attack Patti, Falcone, Barcellona, and Nunziata. On the ground in Sicily, the US Seventh Army continues to pursue the enemy E along the N coast. Further inland, US forces gain a favorable posi- tion from which to assault Randazzo, but the enemy withdraws during the night of 12/13 Aug, precluding an attack. The British Eighth Army seizes Maletto and Riposto. The 85th and 97th Bombardment Squadrons (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light), transfer from Malta to Torrente Comunelli, Sicily with A-20's. The 340th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 97th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers from Chateaudun-du-Rhumel, Algeria to Pont-du-Fahs, Tunisia with B-17's. FRIDAY, 13 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): 61 B-24's hit an aircraft factory at Wiener-Neustadt in the first Ninth Air Force raid on Austria. 80+ B-25's hit Piedimonte, Italy, Falcone, Sicily, and shipping at Messina, Sicily. 200+ P-40's attack shipping and bridges along the SW Italian coast, hit shipping in the Straits of Messina, and fly armored reconnaissance and fighter-bomber operations in NE Sicily. The 67th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 44th Bombardment Group (Heavy), ceases operating from Benina, Libya with B-24's and returns to it's base at Shipdham, England. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-17's bomb a marshalling yard at Lorenzi, and B-25's and B-26's hit a marshalling yard at Littoria; other B-25's hit a vessel off Pizzo. P-40's fly a sweep over S Sardinia, strafing small boats, a power station, and railroad junction. Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) light and medium bombers bomb Piedimonte, Italy, Falcone, Sicily, and bridges N of Scaletta, Sicily. A-36's and fighters hit targets in NE Sicily, the Straits of Messina and on the toe of Italy, including Gioia Tauro, Italy and in Sicily, the Barcellona road junction E of Randazzo, the marshalling yard and trucks at Spadafora, trucks between Taormina and Baracca, and barges, ferries, and small vessels in the Strait of Messina. On the ground in Sicily, the US Seventh Army enters Randazzo without opposition. Coastal forces continue E toward Patti. The 86th Bombardment Squadron (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light), transfers from Malta to Torrente Comunelli, Sicily with A-20's. SATURDAY, 14 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): 61 B-24's, on loan from the Eighth Air Force, bomb the Bf 109 factory at Wiener-Neustadt, Austria. B-25's attack road junctions and vehicle concentrations along the NE coast of Sicily and bomb a crossroads N of Palmi, Italy. P-40's hit shipping in the Milazzo and Messina, Sicily areas and along the Italian coast in the Palmi area. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) P-38's sweep the toe of Italy but find little enemy movement. Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) fighters, and medium and light bombers hit a refueling depot at Nicola and near Gesso, Sicily, a road junction N of Palmi, Italy, shipping in the straits and along the W coast of Italy N to Gioia, and numerous targets of opportunity in NE Sicily and S Italy as the enemy continues an orderly evacuation from Sicily to mainland Italy across the Straits of Messina. On the ground in Sicily, US troops speed E along the coast to the Barcel- lona area and also continue pursuit of the enemy E of Randazzo. The 340th, 341st and 342d Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 97th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfer from Pont-du-Fahs to Depienne, Tunisia with B-17's. SUNDAY, 15 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Sicily, B-25's hit shipping along the beaches of Sant' Agata di Militello; 180+ P-40's attack shipping at Messina and in the Straits of Messina. Enemy forces withdrawing to main- land Italy are pounded severely by constant air attacks. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-25's and B-26's bomb Sibari railroad junction and marshalling yard, and P-38's hit trains, troops, radar, and Staletti railroad tracks and tunnel. P-40's attack a bivouac area near Monserrato, Sardinia. On the ground in Sicily, US Seventh Army troops land on the Sicilian N coast NW of Barcellona during the night of 15/16 Aug to block the enemy withdrawal. The US 3d Infantry Division heads along the N coast to Spada- fora. British Eighth Army troops complete a drive around Mount Etna as the Randazzo-Linguaglossa road is closed. Linguaglossa and Taormina are taken. HQ 97th Bombardment Group (Heavy) transfers from Pont-du-Fahs to Depienne, Tunisia. The 92d Fighter Squadron, 81st Fighter Group, transfers from Warnier, Algeria to Sidi Ahmed, Tunisia with P-39's. MONDAY, 16 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): 86 B-24's bomb the city area and airfields at Foggia, Italy. In Sicily, 50+ B-25's hit landing craft concen- trations near Ganzirri and Messina, and 100+ P-40's hit shipping at Messina and in the Straits of Messina, as the enemy continues the withdrawal of rear guard troop to mainland Italy. Before midnight, US patrols enter Messina, which is under fire from the Italian coast. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) medium bombers hit Staletti and a tempo- rary bridge at Angitola. In Sicily, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) light and medium bombers hit shipping in the Straits of Messina and from N of Messina to Capo Pelaro. A-36's and P-40's concentrate on communi- cations targets on the toe of Italy, hitting trains, trucks, railroad yards, and sidings at Nicastro, Lamezia, Amantea, and Sambiase. Also bombed are barges, ferries, and small vessels off Messina, Sicily and in the Golfo di Sant' Eufemia, Italy. TUESDAY, 17 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): 200+ P-40's hit shipping at Messina, Sicily, at Palmi and in the Gulf of Gioia, Italy. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): The Sicilian campaign ends with the official entry of the US Seventh Army's 3d Infantry Division into Messina at 1000 hours. The British force from Ali arrives shortly thereafter. The fall of Sicily paves the way for the stepped-up air offensive against Italy. In France, about 180 Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-17's attack Istres-Le-Tube Airfield and Salon-de-Provence Airfield. Around 100 medium bombers attack communications targets on the N part of the Italian toe, hitting Battipaglia and Castrovillari with damaging effect; escorting P-38's strafe vehicles in the area. Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) fighters and light bombers pound shipping in the Straits of Messina and Gulf of Gioia, Italy, hit the rail center at Lamezia, Italy, and har- rass enemy movement on the Italian toe. The 416th Night Fighter Squadron, Twelfth Air Force, transfers from Al- giers to Bone, Algeria with Beaufighters. The squadron will fly it's first combat mission on 4 Sep. WEDNESDAY, 18 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Italy, P-40's attack motor transport between Scilla and Bagnara, and bomb shipping off Scilla. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) fighters and medium bombers hit barracks and railroad at Gonnesa, sink a small vessel in the Golfo di Sant' Eufemia and bomb and strafe a railway station, bridge, and tracks at Soverato, bridges and a road junction at Angitola, and highway and road junction at Staletti. Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) air- planes hit gun positions and road and rail transport in S Italy. THURSDAY, 19 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): About 70 B-24's bomb the marshal- ling yard at Foggia, Italy. P-40's fly coastal reconnaissance over the toe of Italy and bomb roads and buildings. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, 150+ Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-17's bomb the Foggia marshalling yard, while almost 100 medium bombers hit marshalling yards at Sapri and Salerno; the bombers, and escorting P-38's claim 34 enemy planes shot down, against 8 losses; Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) A-36's attack the Cantanzaro marshalling yard; P-40's on sweeps over the Italian toe attack a train near Melito di Porto Salvo and strafe a small number of trucks. The 12th Photographic Squadron (Light), 3d Photographic Reconnaissance and Mapping Group, ceases operating from Gela/Ponte Olivo, Sicily with F-4's and returns to it's base at Ariana, Tunisia. The 86th and 97th Bombardment Squadrons (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light) transfer from Torrente Coumunelli to Gerbini, Sicily with A-20's. FRIDAY, 20 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): P-40's strafe and bomb shipping off the Italian toe and communications targets on land. Hits are scored on bridges, railway yards, and railway cars. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-26's hit the Capua and Aversa marshal- ling yards, while B-25's bomb the Benevento marshalling yard, and P-40's attack the airfield at Monserrato, Sardinia; Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) fighters hit road and railway at Gioia and trucks near Locri during missions along the E and W coasts of the Italian toe. HQ 47th Bombardment Group (Light) and it's 84th and 85th Bombardment Squadrons (Light) transfer with A-20's from Torrente Comunelli to Gerbini, Sicily. SATURDAY, 21 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-24's attack a railroad station, marshalling yard, and air depot at Cancello Arnone, Italy. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-26's and B-17's bomb marshalling yards at Villa Literno and Aversa; the P-38 escort also attacks Aversa; NASAF aircraft claim 20+ enemy fighters shot down; Northwest African Tacti- cal Air Force (NATAF) fighter-bombers hit traffic on the Bovalino-Bagnara road. HQ 42d Bombardment Wing (Medium) transfers to Ariana, Tunisia where groups are assigned. SUNDAY, 22 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): All fighter and medium bomber groups of the Ninth Air Force are transferred to the Twelfth Air Force, i.e.: 12th Bombardment Group (Medium) and it's 81st, 82d, 83d and 434th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium) at Gerbini, Sicily with B-25's, 57th Fighter Group and it's 64th, 65th and 66th Fighter Squadrons on Sicily with P-40's, 79th Fighter Group and it's 85th, 86th and 87th Fighter Squadrons on Sicily with P-40's, 324th Fighter Group and it's 314th, 315th and 316th Fighter Squadrons at El Haouaria, Tunisia with P-40's, and 340th Bombardment Group (Medium) and it's 486th, 487th, 488th and 489th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium) at Comiso, Sicily with B-25's. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-26's, with an escort of Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) A-36's, bomb the marshalling yard at Salerno, Italy; they claim 26 enemy fighters destroyed. NATAF fighters on armored reconnaissance hit motor transport S of the Locri-Gioia Tauro, Italy area and NE of Bagnara, Italy. HQ 12th Bombardment Group (Medium) and it's 81st, 82d, 83d and 434th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium) transfer from Ponte Olivo to Gerbini, Sicily. MONDAY, 23 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-24's hit a marshalling yard at Bari, Italy. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-26's bomb the Battipaglia, Italy marshalling yard. Fighter-bombers hit factory and barracks near Cagliari, Sardinia. Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) P-40's and A-36's escort NASAF B-26's, and Spitfires fly uneventful tactical reconnaissance over NE Sicily and the toe of Italy. HQ 313th Troop Carrier Group transfers from Kairouan, Tunisia to Sciacca, Sicily. The 93d Fighter Squadron, 81st Fighter Group, transfers from Monastir to Sidi Ahmed, Tunisia with P-39's. TUESDAY, 24 AUGUST 1943 WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) fighter-bombers hit a railroad tunnel and cruiser offshore at Sibari, tracks and buildings at Castrovillari, and the town area at Sibari; and Royal Air Force (RAF) Desert Air Force air- planes strafe motor transport N of Reggio di Calabria and provide withdrawal cover for the NATAF fighter-bombers. HQ 314th Troop Carrier Group transfers from Kairouan, Tunisia to Castel- vetrano, Sicily. WEDNESDAY, 25 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-24's bomb the marshalling yard at Foggia, Italy. The 566th and 567th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 389th Bombardment Group (Heavy), which have been operating from Bengasi, Libya with B-24's since Jul 43, return to their base at Hethel, England. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): Around 135 B-17's and 140 P-38's attack satellite airfields at Foggia, Italy. Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) fighter-bombers hit trucks S of Sino- poli, Italy. The 414th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 97th Bombardment Group (Heavy) transfers form Pont-du-Fahs to Depienne, Tunisia with B-17's. THURSDAY, 26 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): The 316th Troop Carrier Group and it's 36th, 37th, 44th and 45th Troop Carrier Squadrons with C-47's are transferred to the Twelfth Air Force. The 328th, 329th, 330th, and 409th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 93d Bombardment Group (Heavy), which have been operating from Bengasi, Libya since Jun 43 with B-24's, return to their base at Hardwick, England. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): The Royal Air Force (RAF) Desert Air Force (DAF) is assigned to the Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF), along with US units of the Ninth Air Force which have been an operational part of DAF and Northwest African Tactical Bomber Force (NATBF). In Italy, 80+ Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-17's, with P-38 escort bomb Capua Airfield; 100+ fighter-escorted medium bombers hit Grazzanise Airfield and satellite field; P-40's bomb Carloforte on San Pietro Island and strafe the S part of Sardinia; and NATAF medium and light bombers bomb targets on the toe of Italy, including the railroad junction at Locri and gun positions at Reggio di Calabria and Villa San Giovanni. FRIDAY, 27 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): The 564th and 565th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 389th Bombardment Group (Heavy), which have been operating from Bengasi, Libya since Jul with B-24's, returns to their base at Hethel, England. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-17's bomb the Sulmona marshalling yard, and medium bombers hit the Benevento and Caserta marshalling yards; nearly 150 P-38's escort the bombers. Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) medium and light bombers, and fighters attack targets in S Italy, including Cantanzaro rail and road junction, guns near Reggio di Calabria, Sibari rail junctions, Cetraro marshalling yard, barracks at Tarsia, train and repair shops at Paola, and a barge at Diamante. HQ 340th Bombardment Group (Medium) and it's 486th, 487th, 488th and 498th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium) transfer from Comiso to Catania, Sicily with B-25's. The 527th Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 86th Fighter-Bomber Group, transfers from Gela to Barcelona, Sicily with A-36's. SATURDAY, 28 AUGUST 1943 WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-17's bomb the marshalling yard at Terni; B-26's hit the Aversa marshalling yard and Sparanise; and B-25's hit the Cancello Arnone marshalling yard. P-40's fly intruder missions over Sardinia, bombing and strafing industry and town area. Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) light and medium bombers attack railroad facili- ties at Lamezia and Catanzaro, Italy; fighter-bombers hit road and rail junctions, and marshalling yards at Castrovillari, Cosenza, and Catanzaro, Italy. SUNDAY, 29 AUGUST 1943 WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-17's hit the Orte marshalling yard, and B-26's bomb Torre Annunziata; Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) fighters escort the NASAF bombers, hit a rail junction at Bagnara, bridge and town of Angitola, gun positions in the Villa San Giovanni-Reggio di Calabria areas, and a marshalling yard at Lamezia. HQ 51st Troop Carrier Wing transfers from Goubrine, Tunisia to Gela, Sicily. HQ 57th Bombardment Wing transfers from Egypt to Tunisia. HQ 64th Troop Carrier Group transfers from El Djem, Tunisia to Comiso, Sicily. MONDAY, 30 AUGUST 1943 WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, B-17's of the Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) bomb Viterbo Airfield; B-25's hit the Civitavecchia marshalling yard; B-26's bomb the Aversa marshalling yard. P-40's strafe a radar station at Pula, Sardinia. Also in Italy, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) medium and light bombers attack marshalling yards at Marina di Cantanzaro and Paola, and gun emplacements and bivouac S of Reggio di Calabria; and A-36's bomb marshal- ling yards at Sapri and Lamezia. HQ 60th Troop Carrier Group transfers from El Djem, Tunisia to Gela, Sicily. TUESDAY, 31 AUGUST 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-24's bomb the marshalling yard at Pescara, Italy; they claim 9 enemy fighters destroyed. The 66th and 68th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 44th Bombardment Group (Heavy), that have been operating from Benina, Libya with B-24's since Jun, return to their base at Shipdham, England. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Northwest African Air Force): In Italy, about 150 Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) B-17's blast the Pisa marshal- ling yard, doing a large amount of damage; Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) medium and light bombers bomb the Cosenza marshalling yard and road-railway junction in Cantanzaro during the morning, and in the after- noon bomb the area around Cosenza when clouds prevent hitting specific tar- gets; fighter-bombers hit Sapri railroad and seaplane base; and during the night light bombers hit the bivouac areas SE of Reggio di Calabria.

SEPTEMBER 1943 - MEDITERRANEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS (MTO)

WEDNESDAY, 1 SEPTEMBER 1943 EUROPEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS (Eighth Air Force): The 506th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 44th Bombardment Group (Heavy), ceases operating from Benina, Libya with B-24's and returns to it's base at Shipdham, England. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): All ADMINISTRATIVE functions of the Army Air Forces elements of the Northwest African Air Force are transferred to the appropriate Twelfth Air Force organizations: HQ Northwest African Air Force (NAAF) to HQ Twelfth Air Force, Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) to XII Bomber Command, Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) to XII Air Support Command, Northwest African Coastal Air Force to XII Fighter Command, Northwest African Air Service Command (NAASC) to XII Air Force Services Command, Northwest African Air Force Troop Carrier Command to XII Troop Carrier Command (Provisional), NW African Photographic Reconnaissance Wing to Photo Reconnaissance Wing (Provisional), and Northwest African Training Command (NATC) to XII Training Command (Provisional). OPERATIONAL control remains with the Northwest African Air Force. In Italy, P-40's bomb a zinc plant at Iglesias and strafe a factory N of Gonnesa; medium and light bombers hit Bova Marina, areas near Salina and Sant' Eufemia d'Aspromonte town area and bridge at Oliveto. HQ 52d Troop Carrier Wing transfers from Kairouan, Tunisia to Agrigento, Sicily. HQ 64th Fighter Wing transfers from Gela to Milazzo, Sicily. HQ 61st Troop Carrier Group transfers from Kairouan, Tunisia to Licata, Sicily. The 32d and 61st Troop Carrier Squadrons, 314th Troop Carrier Group, transfer from Kairouan, Tunisia to Castelvetrano, Sicily with C-47's. The 111th Reconnaissance Squadron (Fighter), 68th Reconnaissance Group, transfers from Termini to San Antonio, Sicily with F-6's. The 526th Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 86th Fighter-Bomber Group, transfers from Gela to Barcelona, Sicily with A-36's. THURSDAY, 2 SEPTEMBER 1943 ANTISUBMARINE WARFARE (First Air Force): The 1st Antisubmarine Squadron (Heavy), 480th Antisubmarine Group, based at Port Lyautey, French Morocco begins operating from Protville, Tunisia with B-24's. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, almost 200 B-17's and B-25's of the XII Bomber Command bomb marshalling yards at Bologna, Trento, Bolzano, and Cancello Arnone; bombers and fighters escorting the B-25's claim 28 enemy airplanes shot down; and tactical aircraft, including Royal Air Force (RAF) and Ninth Air Force airplanes, hit gun positions and other targets on the Italian toe, bomb rail communications at Bova Marina, Locri, Marina di Monasterace, Siderno Marina, Lamezia, and Catanzaro, and attack barges in the Golfo di Sant' Eufemia and an ammunition dump at Saptri. HQ 31st Fighter Group and it's 308th Fighter Squadron transfer from Termini to Milazzo, Sicily with Spitfires. The 15th Troop Carrier Squadron, 61st Troop Carrier Group, transfers from Kairouan, Tunisia to Licata, Sicily with C-47's. FRIDAY, 3 SEPTEMBER 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-24's bomb the marshalling yard at Sulmona, Italy; they claim 11 Luftwaffe aircraft destroyed; 6 B-24's are lost. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): P-40's on a sweep over Sardinia hit Pula and Capo Carbonara radar installations. In Italy, A-20's, A-36's, fighters and RAF light bombers hit gun positions throughout the toe of Italy, attack airfields at Crotone and Camigliatello and hit railway yards at Marina di Catanzaro and Punta di Staletti, troop concentration near Santo Stefano d'Aspromonte and road junctions and bridges at Cosenza. On the ground in Italy, the British Eighth Army lands on the toe of Italy between Reggio di Calabria and Villa San Giovanni (Operation BAYTOWN). The Italian government signs surrender terms. HQ 316th Troop Carrier Group and it's 36th Troop Carrier Squadron transfer from Enfidaville, Tunisia to Mazzara, Sicily with C-47's. The 17th Troop Carrier Squadron, 64th Troop Carrier Group, transfers from El Djem, Tunisia to Comiso, Sicily with C-47's. The 62d Troop Carrier Squadron, 314th Troop Carrier Group, transfers from Kairouan, Tunisia to Castelvetrano, Sicily with C-47's. The 307th Fighter Squadron, 31st Fighter Group, transfers from Termini to Milazzo, Sicily with Spitfires. The 415th Night Fighter Squadron, XII Fighter Command, transfers from La Sebala, Tunisia to Cantania, Sicily with Beaufighters. The 522d and 524th Fighter-Bomber Squadrons, 27th Fighter-Bomber Group, transfer from Gela to Barcelona, Sicily and San Antonio, Sicily respectively with A-36's. SATURDAY, 4 SEPTEMBER 1943 WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, bad weather prevents XII Bomber Command B-17's from locating their targets (airfields); P-38's sent to hit landing grounds at Grazzanise also fail to find targets, but attack targets of opportunity in the general area; US fighter-bombers and RAF light bombers hit motor transport scattered along the Italian toe, and bomb gun positions NE of Reggio di Calabria and roads and railroad junction in the Cosenza-Catanzaro-Nicastro area and at Colosimi. HQ 57th Bombardment Wing transfers from Tunisia to Lentini, Sicily. The 16th Troop Carrier Squadron, 64th Troop Carrier Group, transfers El Djem, Tunisia to Comiso, Sicily with C-47's. The 28th Troop Carrier Squadron, 60th Troop Carrier Group, transfers from El Djem, Tunisia to Gela, Sicily with C-47's. The 99th Fighter Squadron, XII Air Support Command, transfers from Licata to Termini, Sicily with P-40's. SUNDAY, 5 SEPTEMBER 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): Brigadier General Victor H Strahm, Chief of Staff, assumes temporary command during the absence of Lieutenant General Lewis H Brereton. Colonel John C Kilborn assumes command of the IX Bomber Command upon the departure of Major General Uzal G Ent from the theater. (Ent AFB, Colorado Springs, Colorado was named for General Ent. The base was active from Jan 51 to Jul 76.) WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, 130+ XII Bomber Command B-17's bomb the airfield at Viterbo and the town of Civitavecchia; 200+ B-25's and B-26's hit landing grounds at Grazzanise. In Sardinia, other medium bombers and fighters hit the Pula radar station and town of Pabillonis. Weather hampers operations of the fighters and medium and light bombers of the NATAF, i.e., Twelfth Air Force and RAF aircraft, and only a few targets (guns, roads, railroads, and troops) are attacked during missions over the toe of Italy. HQ 68th Reconnaissance Group and it's 122d Liaison Squadron transfer from Berrechid Airfield, French Morocco to Berteaux, Algeria. The 122d is operating a fighter training school with P-38's, P-39's and P-40's. The 71st Fighter Squadron, 1st Fighter Group, based at Mateur, Tunisia, begins operating from Gerbini, Sicily with P-38's. The 309th Fighter Squadron, 31st Fighter Group, transfers from Termini to Milazzo, Sicily with Spitfires. The 523d Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 27th Fighter-Bomber Group, transfers from Gela to Barcelona, Sicily with A-36's. MONDAY, 6 SEPTEMBER 1943 WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-17's hit Capodichino Airfield, Villa Literno marshalling yard, Gaeta harbor, and Minturno railroad facilities; weather prevents a B-17 attack on Pomigliano airfield. B-25's and B-26's hit Capua airfield and landing grounds at Grazzanise. P-40's hit the landing ground at Pabillonis, Sardinia. US and RAF planes of NATAF operate on reduced scale, flying patrols and hitting railroads and targets of opportunity on the Italian toe. HQ 62d Troop Carrier Group and it's 7th Troop Carrier Squadron transfers from Goubrine, Tunisia to Ponte Olivo, Sicily with C-47's. The 10th, 11th and 12th Troop Carrier Squadrons, 60th Troop Carrier Group, transfer from El Djem, Tunisia to Gela, Sicily with C-47's. The 14th Troop Carrier Squadron, 61st Troop Carrier Group, transfers from Kairouan, Tunisia to Licata, Sicily with C-47's. The 16th Reconnaissance Squadron (Bomber), 68th Reconnaissance Group, transfers from Berrechid, French Morocco to Berteaux, Algeria. The squadron is operating a school for fighter pilots until 23 Sep with P-38's, P-39's, P-40's and Spitfires. The 27th and 94th Fighter Squadrons, 1st Fighter Group, based at Mateur, Tunisia begin operating from Dittaino, Sicily with P-38's. TUESDAY, 7 SEPTEMBER 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): HQ Army Air Forces decides to transfer Lieutenant General Lewis H Brereton, Commanding General, and his HQ staff from Africa to the United Kingdom to reform the Ninth Air Force in the European Theater of Operations by absorbing the VIII Air Support Command. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-17's bomb 2 satellite airfields at Foggia; B-25's and B-26's hit road and rail bridges at Saptri and Trebisacce and roads at Lauria. In Sardinia, P-40's hit the landing ground at Pabillonis and barges off Portoscuso. US A-20's of the Northwest African Tactical Bomber Force (NATBF) support British landing on 7/8 Sep near Pizzo, Italy in an unsuccessful attempt to cut off enemy retreat up W coast of the Italian toe. Medium and light bombers, in an afternoon raids, bomb Crotone airfield and roadblock and gun batteries N of Catanzaro, Italy. The 4th and 8th Troop Carrier Squadrons, 62d Troop Carrier Group, transfer from Goubrine, Tunisia to Gela, Sicily with C-47's. The 35th Troop Carrier Squadron, 64th Troop Carrier Group, El Djem, Tunisia to Comiso, Sicily with C-47's. WEDNESDAY, 8 SEPTEMBER 1943 EUROPEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS (Eighth Air Force): The 44th and 93d Bombardment Groups (Heavy) resume operations in the UK after detached service in Africa; the 389th Bombardment Group (Heavy), previously diverted to Africa, becomes operational in the UK. EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Italy, B-24's bomb the landing ground at Foggia, as convoys approach Salerno to begin the US invasion of Italy (Operation AVALANCHE). WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, about 130 XII Bomber Command B-17's bomb Frascati; 16O+ medium bombers hit a highway at Lauria and bridges at Trebisacce and Saptri; fighters hit Pabillonis, Sardinia, cover Allied forces near Pizzo, and bomb and strafe roads and vehicles in the Lamezia-Vibo Valentia-Pizzo-Catanzaro areas; and bombers hit roads and junctions in the Naples area during the night of 8/9 Sep. HQ 5th Photographic Reconnaissance Group and the ground echelon of the 23d Photographic Squadron (Light) arrive at La Marsa, Tunisia from the US. The air echelon of the 23d has been operating from La Marsa since 13 Jul 43 with F-5's. The 18th Troop Carrier Squadron, 64th Troop Carrier Group, transfers from El Djem, Tunisia to Comiso, Sicily with C-47's. THURSDAY, 9 SEPTEMBER 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-24's hit the satellite airfield at Foggia, Italy. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): Major General Paul L Williams assumes command of the XII Troop Carrier Command (Provisional). In Italy, 100+ XII Bomber Command B-17's bomb bridges at Capua and Cancello Arnone, and 240+ B-25's and B-26's hit railroad-bridges at Potenza and landing ground at Scanzano; P-40's fly an uneventful sweep over Sardinia. XII Air Support Command fighters maintain patrols over Salerno, and other NATAF planes bomb and strafe motor transport, roads, and other targets in the Catanzaro-Auletta-Rogliano area and NNW of Salerno, as Lieutenant General Mark W Clark's Fifth Army invades Italy, landing near Salerno (Operation AVALANCHE) and British forces make an airborne landing on heel of Italy, taking Taranto (Operation SLAPSTICK). HQ XII Air Support Command transfers from Sicily to Salerno, Italy. FRIDAY, 10 SEPTEMBER 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-24's bomb a satellite airfield at Foggia, Italy, WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command medium bombers hit railroad and road junctions and road net in the Castelnuovo-Pescopagano-Cassino-Capua-Formia areas; heavy bombers attack the Ariano intersection and highway bridge (and bridges and roads in the area), bridges near Botena and over the Tiber River SW of Rome, and roads, buildings, and railroad facilities at Isernia; XII Air Support Command and RAF airplanes of the NATAF blast heavy road movement N from Lauria and cover beachheads in the Salerno area as the British Eighth Army increases pressure on its front in an effort to prevent the Germans from concentrating against the US Fifth Army's Salerno beachhead. German troops occupy Rome. During the night of 10/11 Sep, B-25's of the 12th Bombardment Group (Medium) hit communications centers at Corleto, Perticara, Auletta and Saptri. SATURDAY, 11 SEPTEMBER 1943 WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-17's bomb the Benevento marshalling yard and bridge and highway junction nearby; B-25's and B-26's hit highways and junctions at Castelnuovo, Ariano, Mignano, and Isernia; P-40's fly an uneventful sweep over S Sardinia; and US and RAF airplanes of the NATAF continue to provide beachhead cover in the Salerno area, hit road communications throughout the day, and attack road and rail bridges, junctions, airfield, and town areas at Saptri, Corleto, Perticara, Auletta, and Gioia del Colle, Italy. SUNDAY, 12 SEPTEMBER 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-24's hit Kalathos and Maritsa airfields on Rhodes. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-17's bomb the Mignano road defiles, the Benevento road bridge, and the Frosinone airfield; medium bombers hit Ariano (and trucks and road nearby), Isernia, and Castelnuovo and Formia road junctions; US and RAF aircraft of the NATAF attack motor transport movement, roads, and bridges in the Potenza-Auletta areas, maintain cover over the US Fifth Army in the Salerno invasion area (where the enemy launches a fierce effort to reduce the beachhead), and during the night of 12/13 Sep fly intruder missions over 6 airfields between Rome and Pizzo, finding little activity. British Eighth Army forces on the toe of Italy capture Crotone and push N, and on the Taranto front occupy territory up to N of Castelaneta. The 64th Fighter Squadron, 57th Fighter Group, transfers from Sicily to Rocco Bernardo, Italy with P-40's. MONDAY, 13 SEPTEMBER 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): RAF heavy bombers, under the operational control of the IX Bomber Command, hit Potenza, Italy. Colonel Frederick M Byerly replaces Colonel Charles D McAllister as commander of the IX Fighter Command. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-17's of the XII Bomber Command bomb roads in the Torre del Greco area, a highway at Sala Consilina, and a road junction, railway and bridge at Atena Lucana; B-25's attack a viaduct, rail and road junctions, and rail lines in the the Pompeii-Castellammare di Stabia-Torre Annuziata areas; XII Air Support Command A-36's destroy 25 to 30 vehicles near Potenza, and fighters maintain convoy patrol; US and RAF light and medium bombers of the NATBF hit town areas, road junctions, and vehicles in the Auletta-Pompeii-Sala Consilina-San Severino Rota areas. 80+ C-47's drop contingents of the US 82d Airborne Division S of the Sele River to strengthen the bridgehead in the face of enemy counterattacks which threaten the US Fifth Army beachhead in the Salerno area. HQ 33d Fighter Group transfers from Licata, Sicily to Paestum, Italy. TUESDAY, 14 SEPTEMBER 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Italy, B-24's hit a marshalling yard at Pescara; RAF heavy bombers, under operational control of the IX Bomber Command, hit Potenza. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, elements of the British Eighth Army enter Bari; at Salerno, the US Fifth Army, throwing reserves and service troops into the line, and receiving much naval and air support, holds off enemy onslaughts against the beachhead; XII Bomber Command B-17's, B-25's, and B-26's attack highways, road junctions and defiles, bridges, town areas, railroads, marshalling yard, barracks, and numerous targets of opportunity, including several gun positions, in or near Avellino, Pompeii, Torre Annunziata, Auletta, Baronissi, San Severino Rota, Battipaglia, and Eboli; US and RAF fighter-bombers and light and medium bombers of the NATAF fly well over 500 sorties, mainly against bridges, and towns in the battle area or around Battipaglia, Eboli, Potenza Torre Annunziata, Benevento, Auletta, and Avellino. C-47's drop more contingents of the US 82d Airborne Division S of the Sele River to strengthen the beachhead, and also behind lines near Avellino to disrupt communications. WEDNESDAY, 15 SEPTEMBER 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Italy, B-24's hit a marshalling yard at Potenza and attack railroads and warehouses in the areas around Potenza, Altamura, Gravina di Puglia, and Matera. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-17's of the XII Bomber Command bomb highways and a railroad at Torre del Greco while B-25's and B-26's hit highways and road junctions at or near Torre Annunziata, Battipaglia, Eboli, Serre, Auletta, and Polla. The XII Air Support Command and other NATAF elements attack buildings, railroads, highways and motor transport in support of US Fifth Army as German counterattacks astride Sele River subside. British Eighth Army forces reach Saptri, threatening the enemy with entrapment between US and British forces. HQ 57th Fighter Group transfers from Sicily to Rocco Bernardo, Italy. HQ 79th Fighter Group and it's 85th, 86th and 87th Fighter Squadrons transfer from Sicily to Crotone, Italy with P-40's. The 416th Night Fighter Squadron, Twelfth Air Force, transfers from Bone, Algeria to Bizerte, Tunisia with Beaufighters. The 526th Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 86th Fighter-Bomber Group, transfers from Barcelona, Sicily to Sele Airfield, Italy with A-36's. THURSDAY, 16 SEPTEMBER 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-24's hit road junctions and a supply dump at Potenza, Italy, following a RAF raid of the previous night. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-17's of the XII Bomber Command hit bridges, rail line, marshalling yard, trains, and a railroad-highway intersection in the Benevento area, and roads and railway facilities in the Caserta area; medium bombers hit roads, railroads, junctions, and bridges at Isernia, Formia, Mignano, and Capua; XII Air Support Command fighter-bombers maintain continuous sweeps over the Salerno beachhead and surrounding battle zone while other US and RAF elements of the NATAF (fighters, light and medium bombers) blast enemy aircraft, motor transport, troop concentrations and communications targets in the Contursi and Eboli areas. On the ground in Italy, US and British make patrol contact near Vallo della Lucania. The US Fifth Army ties in with Taranto invasion force to form an Allied line across S Italy. The 111th Reconnaissance Squadron (Fighter), 68th Reconnaissance Group, transfers from San Antonio, Sicily to Sele Airfield, Italy with P-51's. A detachment remains at San Antonio until 30 Sep. The 527th Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 86th Fighter-Bomber Group, transfers from Barcelona, Sicily to Sele Airfield, Italy with A-36's. FRIDAY, 17 SEPTEMBER 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In Italy, B-24's, attack a marshalling yard, road junction, and rail junction at Pescara on the E coast; RAF heavy bombers again hit Potenza. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-17's and B-26's bomb airfields at Ciampino and Pratica di Mare; B-25's attack small craft and barges off the mouth of the Tiber River; P-38's fly 27 dive-bombing missions against roads, junctions, railways, bridges, and targets of opportunity in the battle area and towns of Vallo della Lucania, Acerno, Nocera, Avellino, Gragnano Serre, Lioni, Fisciano, Monteforte Irpino, Cava de' Tirreni and Auletta; XII Air Support Command, NATBF, and other elements of NATAF escort naval vessels, and bomb rail and road junctions, motor transport, a marshalling yard, town areas, and various targets of opportunity in the Pompeii, Torre Annunziata, Salerno, Campagna, Sarno, Solofra, Montella, and Acerno areas. On the ground in Italy, US Fifth Army forces advancing on Altavila are pinned down however, the enemy retires to the N, completing a withdrawal from the battleline during the night. The British Eighth Army begins a general advance N toward Potenza and Auletta. The 99th Fighter Squadron, XII Air Support Command, transfers from Termini to Barcellona, Sicily with P-40's. SATURDAY, 18 SEPTEMBER 1943 EUROPEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS (Eighth Air Force): The 328th, 329th, 330th and 409th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 93d Bombardment Group (Heavy), based at Hardwick, England begin operating from Oudna, Tunisia with B-24's. ANTISUBMARINE WARFARE (First Air Force): The 1st Antisubmarine Squadron (Heavy), 480th Antisubmarine Group, ceases operating from Protville, Tunisia and returns to it's base at Port Lyautey, French Morocco with B-24's. EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): B-24's hit the marshalling yard at Pescara, Italy. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-17's of the XII Bomber Command hit Viterbo airfield and Salerno-Avellino road, while B-25's and B-26's bomb the airfields at Ciampino and Pratica di Mare; B-25's fire 75mm shells at small vessels and a lighthouse near Capraia and between Pianosa and Corsica; P-38's on detached service with the NATAF strafe 4 satellite airfields at Foggia and bomb roads, railroads, bridges, and towns in the battle area. On the ground in Italy, US Seventh Army forces take Altavilla, Persano, and Battipaglia without opposition. HQ 27th Fighter-Bomber Group transfers from Sicily to Capaccio, Italy. The detachments of the 27th, 71st and 94th Fighter Squadrons, 1st Fighter Group, operating from Dittaino, Gerbini, and Dittaino, Sicily respectively with P-38's return to their base at Mateur, Tunisia. The 65th Fighter Squadron, 57th Fighter Group, transfers from Sicily to Rocco Bernardo, Italy with P-40's. The 522d, 523d and 524th Fighter-Bomber Squadrons, 27th Fighter-Bomber Group, transfer from Barcelona, Sicily to Capaccio, Italy with A-36's. SUNDAY, 19 SEPTEMBER 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): The 66th, 67th, 68th and 506th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 44th Bombardment Group (Heavy), based at Shipdham, England begin operating from Tunis, Tunisia with B-24's. The 564th, 566th and 567th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 389th Bombardment Group (Heavy), based at Hethel, England begin operating from Massicault, Tunisia with B-24's. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, fighter-bombers of the XII Air Support Command and planes of other NATAF elements [US and RAF] concentrate on attacking roads and vehicles in the Benevento-Montesarchio- Contursi-Potenza-Avellino areas, and a railway station at Castelnuovo. On the ground in Italy, the US Fifth Army gains firm control of the Salerno plain, while the British Eighth Army troops take Potenza and Auletta. MONDAY, 20 SEPTEMBER 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): The 98th and 376th Bombardment Groups (Heavy), based in Libya, along with the 43d Service Group and several military police and engineer units, are to be transferred to the Twelfth Air Force, effective on the date they transfer to Tunisia. The IX Bomber Command makes its last raid on Italy. B-24's of 98th and 376th Bombardment Groups (Heavy) are dispatched to the Castelfranco Veneto marshalling yard. Clouds obscure the target, but the 98th Group drops bombs on the estimated time of arrival. The 376th bombs a marshalling yard and airfield at Pescara during the return trip. The 565th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 389th Bombardment Group (Heavy), based at Hethel, England begins operating from Massicault, Tunisia with B-24's. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-17's and B-26's bomb the Castelnuovo road junction, the town of Formia, the Torre Annunziata area roads, and roads and railroad SW of Sarno; XII Air Support Command A-36's attack and disperse enemy tank and troop concentrations forming near Nocera for a counterattack. Other AAF and RAF aircraft of the NATAF hit enemy movement in the Avellino-Naples-Potenza- Benevento-Calabritto-Pomigliano-Pescopagano areas. On the ground in Italy, the US Seventh Army starts into the mountains N of Salerno. HQ 31st Fighter Group and it's 308th Fighter Squadron transfer from Milazzo, Sicily to Montecorvino, Italy with Spitfires. TUESDAY, 21 SEPTEMBER 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): HQ IX Fighter Command at Tripoli, Libya closes. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-17's hit a bridge and the town area at Benevento; B-25's and B-26's hit landing craft and a ferry near Elba Island and bridges at Cancello Arnone and Capua; B-24's on detached service from the Eighth Air Force bomb Leghorn and Bastia; medium bombers and fighter-bombers of the NATBF and XII Air Support Command hit town areas, troop concentrations, trucks and tanks, and targets of opportunity in the Solofra-Avellino-Benevento areas. HQ 98th Bombardment Group (Heavy) transfers from Benina, Libya to Hergla, Tunisia. The 307th and 309th Fighter Squadrons, 31st Fighter Group, transfer from Milazzo, Sicily to Montecorvino, Italy with Spitfires. The 416th Night Fighter Squadron, Twelfth Air Force, transfers from Bizerte, Tunisia to Catania, Sicily with Beaufighters. WEDNESDAY, 22 SEPTEMBER 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): The Ninth Air Force flies its final mission from Africa. B-24's bomb Maritsa Airfield on Rhodes and Eleusis Airfield in Greece. The bomb groups of IX Bomber Command subsequently are transferred to the Twelfth Air Force. HQ IX Fighter Command begins a movement from Tripoli, Libya to Middle Wallop, England. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-25's and B-26's bomb roads, railroad, and bridges at or near San Martino Sannita, Grottaminarda, Amorosi, and Mignano; B-25's on detached service to the NATAF attack small vessels near Elba Island with 75mm cannon; NATBF and XII Air Support Command airplanes hit troop concentrations and gun positions near Serino and Santa Lucia di Serino, road block at Nocera, town and roads at Fisciano, the town of Pagani, tanks and trucks between Acerno and Montella and in the Foggia area, vessels and docks at Manfredonia, the town of Camarella, and the landing ground at Capua. HQ 86th Fighter-Bomber Group transfers from Barcellona, Sicily to Sele Airfield, Italy. THURSDAY, 23 SEPTEMBER 1943 WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-26's bomb bridges at Cancello Arnone and 3 miles (4.8 km) NE of Capua; planes of the NATBF and XII Air Support Command attack motor transport, roads, railroads, town areas, gun positions, and targets of opportunity in the areas of San Severino Rota, Avellino, Sarno, Torre Annunziata, Aversa, Nocera, Resina, Serino, Pompeii, and Camarella. The 525th Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 86th Fighter-Bomber Group, transfers from Barcelona, Sicily to Sele Airfield, Italy with A-36's. FRIDAY, 24 SEPTEMBER 1943 WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's and B-26's of the XII Bomber Command hit roads, railways, bridges, and junctions at Grottaminarda, Maddaloni, Benevento, Avellino, Capua, Cancello Arnone, Amorosi, Ponte, and Mignano, and attack a destroyer between Corsica and Elba Island; B-24's on detached service from the Eighth Air Force bomb the marshalling yard at Pisa; US and RAF planes of the NATBF, XII Air Support Command, and other elements of the NATAF attack vehicles, roads, troop concentrations, and gun positions around Santa Lucia di Serino, Serino, Caserta, Benevento, Camarella, Baronissi, Nocera, Montemarano, and San Severo. HQ 47th Bombardment Group (Light) and it's 84th and 85th Bombardment Squadrons (Light) transfer from Gerbini, Sicily to Grottaglie, Italy with A-20's. The 344th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 98th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers from Lete, Libya to Hergla, Tunisia with B-24's. SATURDAY, 25 SEPTEMBER 1943 WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, about 90 B-17's of the XII Bomber Command hit the Bologna marshalling yard; 14 others hit the Bolzano railroad bridge; B-25's and B-26's bomb airfields at Pisa, Lucca, and Bastia/Borgo, a highway at Mignano, a road junction at Maddaloni, and railroad and road bridges at Cancello Amone, Caiazzo, and Ponte; US and RAF aircraft of the NATBF, XII Air Support Command, and RAF DAF hit Serino (causing a roadblock), troop concentrations at Sarno, gun positions, troops, and vehicles near Nocera, Aquino airfield, a storage dump N of Foggia and a dredger at Termoli. HQ 57th Fighter Group and it's 64th, 65th and 66th Fighter Squadrons transfer from Rocco Bernardo to Gioia Airfield, Italy with P-40's. The 343d Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 98th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers from Lete, Libya to Hergla, Tunisia with B-24's. SUNDAY, 26 SEPTEMBER 1943 WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, fighters, and light and medium bombers of the XII Air Support Command, NATBF, and RAF DAF patrol the battle zone, escort convoys, carry out bombing and strafing sweeps against motor transport in the Benevento-Melfi area and N of Foggia, bomb the Pomigliano landing ground, and hit the town of Sarno and military concentrations to the N. Bad weather prevents XII Bomber Command heavy bomber missions. HQ 376th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and it's 512th, 513th, 514th and 515th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy) transfer from Bengasi, Libya to Enfidaville, Tunisia with B-24's. The 16th Reconnaissance Squadron (Bomber), 68th Reconnaissance Group, transfers from Berteaux, Algeria to Foch Field, Tunisia. This squadron transitions for fighters to B-17's and serves as a radar detection and countermeasures unit until Sep 44. The 345th and 415th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 98th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfer from Benina, Libya to Hergla, Tunisia with B-24's. MONDAY, 27 SEPTEMBER 1943 WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, weather almost halts Twelfth Air Force operations; XII Air Support Command fighters strafe Viterbo Airfield and Bracciano seaplane base, bomb a road junction at San Servero, and strafe a locomotive and the train station; other NATAF airplanes hit trucks in the Benevento area. The 86th and 97th Bombardment Squadrons (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light), transfer from Gerbini, Sicily to Grottaglie, Italy with A-20's. The 416th Night Fighter Squadron, Twelfth Air Force, transfers from Catania, Sicily to Lecce, Italy with Beaufighters. The squadron is attached to the RAF's No. 286 Wing until Jan 44. TUESDAY, 28 SEPTEMBER 1943 WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, weather prevents completion of XII Bomber Command B-17 missions against the Bologna marshalling yard and the Bolzano railroad bridge, except for 1 heavy bomber which bombs Bolzano; tactical aircraft operations are also severely curtailed by weather; fighter-bombers bomb and strafe motor transport in the Benevento-Caserta area. On the ground in Italy, the US Fifth Army is ready for an assault on Naples and Avellino. Caistellamare di Stabia, Nocera, and Sala Consilina are taken. WEDNESDAY, 29 SEPTEMBER 1943 WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-25's and B-26's bomb bridges at or near Piana, Castelvenere, Amorosi, and Cancello Amone; P-38's bomb Ausonia defile and a bridge near San Apollinare; US and RAF tactical aircraft hit the town of San Giorgio del Sannio and roads in the area S of Benevento. On the ground in Italy, the US Fifth Army opens an attack on Avellino during the night of 29/30 Sep. General Dwight D Eisenhower and Marshal Pietro Badoglio sign the Italian surrender document on the battleship HMS Nelson off Malta. HQ 51st Troop Carrier Wing transfers from Gela to Catania, Sicily. THURSDAY, 30 SEPTEMBER 1943 WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command P-38's, B-25's, and B-26's bomb road and rail and road bridges at Ausonia, Piana, Castelvenere, Amorosi, and Capua, and carry out sweeps from Bastia to Elba Island; 7 B-25's hit Benevento and surrounding rail and road communications; XII Air Support Command fighter-bombers carry out strafing and bombing missions N and NE of Naples as Avellino falls to the US 3d Division. The 8th Troop Carrier Squadron, 62d Troop Carrier Group, transfers from Gela to Ponte Olivo, Sicily with C-47's. The detachment of the 111th Reconnaissance Squadron (Fighter), 68th Reconnaissance Group, operating from San Antonio, Sicily with P-51's transfers to Capaccio, Italy. The 416th Night Fighter Squadron, Twelfth Air Force, transfers from Lecce to Grottaglie, Italy with Beaufighters.

OCTOBER 1943 - MEDITERRANEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS (MTO)

FRIDAY, 1 OCTOBER 1943 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Ninth Air Force): In the first half of October, HQ Ninth Air Force and HQ IX Bomber Command begin a movement to England from Egypt and Libya. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-26's hit communications targets in the Capua, Grazzanise, Arce, and Mignano areas. B-24's, including heavy bombers on detached service from the Eighth Air Force, bomb Wiener-Neustadt, Austria; B-17's, sent against an airplane factory at Augsburg, Germany, fail to locate the target, and bomb several alternate targets and targets of opportunity in Austria, Italy, and off Corsica and Elba Island, Italy. In Italy, Northwest African Tactical Bomber Force (NATBF) and XII Air Support Command medium and light bombers, and fighter-bombers hit the Benevento town area and marshalling yard, the bridge at Capua, and motor transport, trains, and railroads mainly in the Isernia area and N to Avezzano. The British King's Dragoon Guards (with the US Fifth Army) occupy Naples. British Eighth Army troops occupy Foggia airfields. HQ 57th Fighter Group and it's 66th Fighter Squadron transfer from Gioia Airfield to Foggia, Italy with P-40's. The 15th Bombardment Squadron (Light), and 311th Bombardment Squadron (Dive), Twelfth Air Force, are disbanded at Nouvion, Algeria and Gela, Sicily respectively. A detachment of the 515th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 376th Bombardment Group (Heavy) based at Enfidaville, Tunisia with B-24's, begins operating from Bengasi, Libya. During October, HQ 63d Fighter Wing transfers from Rerhaia, Algeria to Bastia, Corsica; HQ 68th Reconnaissance Group transfers from Berteaux, Algeria to Massicault, Tunisia; the 37th Troop Carrier Squadron, 316th Troop Carrier Group, transfers from Egypt to El Aouina, Tunisia with C-47's. SATURDAY, 2 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): Brigadier General Gordon P Saville becomes Commanding General, XII Fighter Command. Weather curtails operations. In Italy, fighter-bombers of the XII Air Support Command attack motor transport, roads, and bridges during armed reconnaissance missions from the Volturno Valley N to Isernia and W to Benevento. The 64th and 65th Fighter Squadrons, 57th Fighter Group, transfer from Rocco Bernardo to Foggia, Italy with P-40's. SUNDAY, 3 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-26's, B-25's, and P-38's bomb railroad, highway, and pontoon bridges, an overpass, and road junction at Capua, Castel Volturno, Piana, Arce, Mignano, and Isernia; P-38's also hit shipping between Corsica and Italy. XII Bomber Command fighter-bombers hit motor transport in the battle area as US Fifth Army troops take Benevento. HQ 82d Fighter Group and it's 95th, 96th and 97th Fighter Squadrons transfer from Grombalia, Tunisia to San Pancrazio, Italy with P-38's. HQ 313th Troop Carrier Group and it's 29th Troop Carrier Squadron transfer from Sciacca to Trapani/Milo Airfield, Sicily with C-47's. HQ 321st Bombardment Group (Medium) and it's 445th, 446th and 447th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium) transfer from Soliman, Tunisia to Grottaglie, Italy with B-25's. HQ 324th Fighter Group and it's 314th, 315th and 316th Fighter Squadrons transfer from El Haouaria to Menzel Heurr, Tunisia with P-40's. These units have been regrouping since Jul 43. Detachments of the 512th, 513th and 514th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 376th Bombardment Group (Heavy), based at Enfidaville, Tunisia begin operating from Bengasi, Libya with B-24's. MONDAY, 4 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, 100+ XII Bomber Command B-17's bomb the Pisa marshalling yard and Bolzano bridges; B-25's and B-26's attack the airfield at Argos, road defiles at Terracina and Isernia, a highway overpass at Mignano, and shipping at Bastia; NATBF aircraft hit road and rail junctions on the main road N from Capua; XII Air Support Command fighter-bombers hit trains, roads, railroads, and vehicles near Isernia, Avezzano, Pescara, and Isolella. The Allies now have complete control of Corsica. The 5th Photographic Squadron (Light), Twelfth Air Force, based at La Marsa, Tunisia begins operating from Pontecagnano, Italy with F-5's. The 87th Fighter Squadron, 79th Fighter Group, transfers from Crotone to Salsola, Italy with P-40's. The 94th Fighter Squadron, 1st Fighter Group, based at Mateur, Tunisia sends a detachment to Gambut, Libya with P-38's. The 448th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 321st Bombardment Group (Medium), transfers from Soliman, Tunisia to Grottaglie, Italy with B-25's. "A" Flight of the 15th Photographic Squadron (Heavy), 3d Photographic Reconnaissance and Mapping Group, based at La Marsa, Tunisia sends a detachment to Grottaglie, Italy with B-17's and F-5's. "B" and "C" Flights are still in the US. TUESDAY, 5 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): Lieutenant General James H Doolittle assumes command of the Twelfth Air Force during the absence of General Carl Spaatz. In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-17's hit the Bologna marshalling yard; B-25's and B-26's bomb the Formia road, a road loop N of Mignano, and Isernia chokepoint; NATBF, XII Air Support Command, and RAF Desert Air Force (DAF) aircraft bomb numerous targets in and N of the battle area, including heavy traffic in the Isernia area, gasoline dumps at Alfedena, trains at Termoli, and towns of Venafro and Isolella. The 15th Troop Carrier Squadron, 61st Troop Carrier Group, transfers from Licata to Sciacca, Sicily with C-47's. The 27th and 71st Fighter Squadrons, 1st Fighter Group, based at Mateur, Tunisia send detachments to Gambut, Libya with P-38's. The 85th and 86th Fighter Squadrons, 79th Fighter Group, transfer from Crotone to Salsola, Italy with P-40's. The 111th Reconnaissance Squadron (Fighter), 68th Reconnaissance Group, transfers from Sele to Pomigliano, Italy with P-51's. A detachment of the squadron is operating from Capaccio, Italy. The 526th Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 86th Fighter-Bomber Group, transfers from Sele Airfield to Seretella Airfield, Italy with A-36's. WEDNESDAY, 6 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-17's bomb the Mestre marshalling yard while B-26's hit a highway chokepoint at Isernia, the highway at Mignano, and road junction at Formia; P-38's strafe Araxos Airfield in Greece; NATBF planes on road- blocking missions hit targets at Teano, at Alfedena, between Cassino and Capua, and near Sessa Aurunca; XII Air Support Command P-40's and A-36's attack roads and vehicles N of the US Fifth Army battle zone and patrol the Naples area. The US Fifth Army reaches the S bank of the Volturno River; Capua falls to British units. HQ 61st Troop Carrier Group and it's 14th Troop Carrier Squadron transfer from Licata to Sciacca, Sicily with C-47's. THURSDAY, 7 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): Bad weather cancels many operations. In Italy, NATBF medium and light bombers strike roads, railway, junction, and town areas in the Capua and Guglionesi regions. RAF DAF fighter-bombers hit trucks in the Termoli-Vasto areas. HQ 57th Bombardment Wing transfers from Lentini, Sicily to Naples, Italy. HQ 64th Fighter Wing transfers from Milazzo, Sicily to Frattamaggiore, Italy. FRIDAY, 8 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Greece, XII Bomber Command B-24's bomb Tatoi and Eleusis Airfields at Athens, airfields at Kastelli and Heraklion Airfields on Crete, and Maritsa Airfield on Rhodes; B-25's also hit Eleusis airfield; P-38's fly convoy cover, patrols, and sweeps over the Aegean Sea. Weather prevents the XII Air Support Command from operating. In Italy, the NATBF and RAF DAF hit a bridge at Minturno and a road junction and military concentration at Termoli. SATURDAY, 9 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): XII Bomber Command B-17's bomb airfields at Larissa, Athens and Salonika, Greece and Argos, Italy. B-24's hit Kastelli/Pediada Airfield on Crete. P-38's fly a sweep between the island of Corfu, Greece and Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia and escort shipping in the Karpathos Straits between Carpathos and Rhodes. In Italy, the XII Air Support Command does not operate, but the NATBF and RAF DAF hit traffic in the Termoli and Montenero areas, guns N of Capua, a HQ at Palata, and roads and railroads N of Naples. HQ 79th Fighter Group transfers from Crotone to Foggia, Italy. The 66th, 67th, 68th and 506th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 44th Bombardment Group (Heavy), cease operating from Tunis, Tunisia and return to their base at Shipdham, England with B-24's. SUNDAY, 10 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): B-17's bomb 2 airfields at Athens, Greece while B-24's hit Maritsa Airfield on Rhodes and Calato and Heraklion Airfields on Crete. P-38's escort shipping off Rhodes, hit Antimachia Airfield in the Dodecanese Islands, and attack vessels in the harbors of Corfu, Greece and Kotor, Yugoslavia, and off Tivat, Yugoslavia and hit targets of opportunity in the Aegean Sea and along its E coastline. In Italy, the NATBF and RAF DAF concentrate on gun positions on both the US Fifth and British Eighth Army battlefronts; vehicles, railroads, and town areas also are hit; the attacks take place NE of Capua, at Guglionesi, at Cassino and Mondragone, between Rome and Terracina, and around the Termoli- Isernia-Pescara areas. HQ 82d Fighter Group and it's 95th, 96th and 97th Fighter Squadron transfer from San Pancrazio to Lecce, Italy with P-38's. A detachment of the 380th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 310th Bombardment Group (Medium), based at Menzel Temime, Tunisia with B-25's begins operating from Oudna, Tunisia. MONDAY, 11 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): XII Bomber Command B-25's bomb Garitsa Airfield, Greece and P-38's hit a vessel in the Corfu harbor on Corfu Island. In Italy, XII Air Support Command and NATBF operations are cancelled or aborted due to weather, but RAF DAF fighters hit trains, trucks, and gun positions near Montesilvano and Vasto. The 381st and 428th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium), 310th Bombardment Group (Medium), based at Menzel Temime, Tunisia with B-25's begin operating from Oudna, Tunisia. Detachments of the 512th, 513th and 514th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 376th Bombardment Group (Heavy), which have been operating from Bengasi, Libya with B-24's, return to their base at Enfidaville, Tunisia. The 527th and 528th Fighter-Bomber Squadrons, 86th Fighter-Bomber Group, transfer from Sele Airfield to Serretella Airfield, Italy with A-36's. TUESDAY, 12 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): XII Bomber Command operations are canceled by weather. In Italy, the XII Air Support Command and other Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) elements (NATBF and RAF DAF) operate on a reduced scale, hitting road junctions at Vasto and Fossacesia, Aquino Airfield, motor transport on the Itri-Pico road and on a road N of Rome in the Bolsena and Capranica areas, roads near Tarquinia, rail facilities at Cisterna di Latina, trains between Pescara and Benedello, and guns and troops near Cercemaggiore. HQ 81st Fighter Group and it's 91st Fighter Squadron transfer from Sidi Ahmed, Tunisia to Castelvetrano, Sicily with P-39's. HQ 86th Fighter-Bomber Group and it's 526th Fighter-Bomber Squadron, transfer from Sele Airfield to Serretella Airfield, Italy with A-36's. The 86th Bombardment Squadron (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light), transfers from Grottaglie to Vincenzo Airfield, Italy with A-20's. The detachment of the 94th Fighter Squadron, 1st Fighter Group, that has been operating from Gambut, Libya with P-38's since 4 Oct, returns to it's base at Mateur, Tunisia. The detachment of the 515th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 376th Bombardment Group (Heavy), at Bengasi, Libya with B-24's since 1 Oct, returns to it's base at Enfidaville, Tunisia. WEDNESDAY, 13 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): Italy declares war on Germany. In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-25's and B-26's bomb the town of Alife, a road junction at Sessa Aurunca, and airfield at Tirana; XII Air Support Command, supplemented by RAF DAF fighters, supports the US Fifth Army, which begins an assault crossing of the Volturno River on a 40-mile (64 km) front during the night of 12/13 Oct. Fighters and fighter-bombers hit troop and tank concentrations, trains, trucks, and communications the lines in the forward areas, especially around Ortona, Giulianova, and Campobasso. NATBF light bombers join in the attacks, hitting road junctions in the Vairano, Carinola, Dragoni, Vasto, Terracina, and Minturno areas. The 12th Photographic Squadron (Light), 3d Photographic Reconnaissance and Mapping Group, transfers from Ariana to La Marsa, Tunisia with F-4's and F-5's. The detachment of the 27th Fighter Squadron, 1st Fighter Group, operating from Gambut, Libya with P-38's since 5 Oct, returns to it's base at Mateur, Tunisia. The 92d Fighter Squadron, 81st Fighter Group, transfers from Sidi Ahmed, Tunisia to Castelvetrano, Sicily with P-39's. The 307th Fighter Squadron, 31st Fighter Group, transfers from Montecorvino to Pomigliano, Italy with Spitfires. The 379th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 310th Bombardment Group (Medium), based at Menzel Temime, Tunisia with B-25's, begins operating from Oudna, Tunisia. THURSDAY, 14 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-25's hit Argos Airfield and B-17's bomb the Terni marshalling yard. Other B-17's and B-24's attack a bridge at Giulianova, the town area of Piano-Vomano and railroad and highway bridges N of Pescara and along the E coast of Italy. Weather hinders tactical aircraft operations, but the XII Air Support Command and RAF DAF hit trains and vehicles and fly patrols from N of the Volturno River to Formia and N of Pescara. HQ 31st Fighter Group and it's 308th and 309th Fighter Squadrons transfer from Montecorvino to Pomigliano, Italy with Spitfires. The 5th Photographic Squadron (Light), Twelfth Air Force, based at La Marsa, Tunisia with F-5's transfers operations from Pontecagnano to Pomigliano, Italy. The 111th Reconnaissance Squadron (Fighter), 68th Reconnaissance Group, ceases operating from Capaccio and returns to it's base at Pomigliano, Italy with P-51's. The 525th Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 86th Fighter-Bomber Group, transfers from Sele Airfield to Serretella Airfield, Italy with A-36's. FRIDAY, 15 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): B-25's of the XII Bomber Command hit airfields at Salonika and Megalo Mikra, Greece. In Italy, XII Air Support Command and other elements of NATAF hit roads, railroads, bridges, junctions, railway facilities, town areas, and motor transport at or near Piedimonte, Vairano, Termoli, Petacciato, Sparanise, and Civitanova, and hit gun positions and communications in the general battle area N of the Volturno River. HQ 47th Bombardment Group (Light) and it's 84th and 85th Bombardment Squadron (Light) transfer from Gorttaglie to Vincenzo Airfield, Italy with A-20's. HQ 340th Bombardment Group (Medium) and it's 489th Bombardment Squadron (Medium) transfer from Catania, Sicily to San Pancrazio, Italy with B-25's. The detachment of the 71st Fighter Squadron, 1st Fighter Group, operating from Gambut, Libya with P-38's returns to it's base at Mateur, Tunisia. SATURDAY, 16 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): P-38's bomb a vessel in Leukas Channel off the W coast of Greece. In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-25's bomb the marshalling yard and rail lines, railroad tunnel, highway underpass, warehouses, industrial buildings, and gas works in or near Bologna; XII Air Support Command and other NATAF elements provide close support to the US Fifth and British Eighth Armies; fighters and light and medium bombers hit communications centers of Venafro, Vairano, Sparanise, Latina, Alife, and the town of Pietravairano; roads, railroads, and junctions in the areas SE of Rome to the bomb line, between Vasto and Pescara, and at Mondragone; gun positions, trucks, and military concentrations near Vinchiaturo, Boiano, and Termoli; landing ground of Cisterna di Latina; and several other targets in the area between Rome and Ancona. SUNDAY, 17 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): Weather prevents operations by the XII Bomber Command. US and RAF units of NATAF operate at a reduced pace. In Italy, light and medium bombers hit the towns of Teano and Alife and motor transport at Benedello, Penna, and Pedesso; fighter-bombers bomb and strafe troops, trucks, guns, train stations, and a bridge near Vinchiaturo, Benedello, Teramo, and Sparanise; other fighters strafe locomotives S of Ancona. The 97th Bombardment Squadron (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light), transfers from Grottaglie to Vincenzo Airfield, Italy with A-20's. The 99th Fighter Squadron, XII Air Support Command, transfers from Barcellona, Sicily to Foggia, Italy with P-40's. MONDAY, 18 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): XII Bomber Command B-25's bomb the marshalling yard at Skoplje, Yugoslavia; P-38's follow with a strafing mission, damaging or destroying several locomotives and vehicles. In Italy, XII Air Support Command A-36's hit the Venafro railroad yards, and other fighter-bombers hit gun positions, troops, and railway stations in or near Boiano, Petacciato, and Vairano. Fighters strafe airfields around Rome and also hit Viterbo, Grosseto, and the seaplane base at Bracciano, and attack trains on the Rome-Orte and Rome-Naples, Italy lines. NATBF light bombers bomb the road and railway near Cassino, the town of Carpinone, the road junction at Castiglione della Valle, and roads, bridges, and motor transport near Minturno and Chieti. HQ 316th Troop Carrier Group transfers from Mazzara to Borizzo, Sicily. The 4th Troop Carrier Squadron, 62d Troop Carrier Group, transfers from Gela to Catania, Sicily with C-47's. The 12th Photographic Squadron (Light), 3d Photographic Reconnaissance and Mapping Group, based at La Marsa, Tunisia with F-4's and F-5's, sends a detachment to operate from Ajaccio/Camp del Oro, Corsica. TUESDAY, 19 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, during a low-level raid, XII Bomber Command B-24's bomb bridges at Porto Civitanova, S of Porto Sant' Elpidio, N of Pedaso, and N of Cupra Marittima; fighters, fighter-bombers, and light bombers of the XII Air Support Command, NATBF, and RAF DAF attack the town of Boiano, gun positions and troop concentrations on the outskirts of town, and an ammunition dump and railroad tunnel nearby, Viterbo and Tarquinia landing fields, the towns of Cassino and Anzio, the railroad N of Pesaro and near Pineto, trains near Barisciano, troops near Mintumo, and vehicles at several points. WEDNESDAY, 20 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-17's, B-26's, B-25's and P-38's bomb the Rome-Casale landing ground, Marcigliana and Cerveteri Airfields, railroad bridges at Montalto di Castro, Grosseto, and 13 miles (21 km) SE of Orvieto, and the marshalling yard at Nish, Yugoslavia obstructing the Belgrade-Sofia line; the XII Air Support Command, NATBF, and other aircraft of the NATAF devote most of their efforts to bombing gun positions, trucks, and rail and road communications S of Vasto, at Mignano, N of Cassino, in Cassino and Chieti, at Castropignano, Carpinone, Arce, Tratella, and at various other points along highways and railroads. Fighter-bombers also hit shipping along Dalmatian coast of Yugoslavia, claiming 2 vessels sunk. HQ 62d Fighter Wing transfers from Palermo, Sicily to Naples, Italy. The 527th Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 86th Fighter-Bomber Group, transfers from Serretella Airfield to Pomigliano, Italy with A-36's. THURSDAY, 21 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): Colonel Arthur Thomas takes command of the XII Air Force Service Command. In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-17's hit a railroad viaduct at Terni and rail and road bridges in Albania. B-24's hit Orvieto railroad bridge; B-26's and B-25's bomb bridges at Montalto di Castro and NW of Acquapendente and the railroad at Orbetello; P-38's bomb a radar station at Pellegrino and the marshalling yard at Skoplje, Yugoslavia; RAF and US NATAF light and medium bombers concentrate on Cassino, hitting the town, a bivouac area nearby, and railroad to the S; vessels along Dalmatian coast of Yugoslavia are also attacked; XII Air Support Command fighters and fighter-bombers patrol the Naples area and attack numerous roads, railroads, bridges, junctions, trucks, gun emplacements, and other targets in the battle area. The 93d Fighter Squadron, 81st Fighter Group, transfers from Sidi Ahmed, Tunisia to Castelvetrano, Sicily with P-39's. FRIDAY, 22 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): The Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) approve the plan, submitted by General Henry H "Hap" Arnold and the US Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), to create a new Air Force (the Fifteenth) in Italy from part of the Twelfth Air Force to be used in strategic bombing against Germany as well as in support of ground operations. In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-26's bomb railroad bridges N and SE of Omvieto; B-25's hit a railroad bridge S of Grosseto and Eleusis Airfield, Greece; The XII Air Support Command, along with other elements of the NATAF, hit town areas, highways, vehicles, gun positions, railroad communications, strongpoints, and targets of opportunity at or near San Salvo Teano, Venafro, Cantalupo el Sannio, Isernia, Cassino, Montenero, and Boiano. Aquino Airfield is also bombed. The 12th Troop Carrier Squadron, 60th Troop Carrier Group, based at Gela, Sicily, begins operating from Comiso, Sicily with C-47's. SATURDAY, 23 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-26's bomb railroad and road bridges at Marsicano and Montalto di Castro; P-38's hit the airfield at Tirana; B-25's hit a bridge in Albania; the XII Air Support Command, RAF Desert Air Force (DAF), and NATBF attack troop concentrations in the Spinete area, and town areas, vehicles, trains, railroads, highways, bridges, and gun positions at or near Gaeta, Pescara, Vasto, Isolella, Sulmona, Isernia, Vairano, and Ancona. SUNDAY, 24 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): XII Bomber Command B-24's of the 98th Bombardment Group (Heavy) hit Wiener-Neustadt, Austria; the 376th Bombardment Group (Heavy) fails to complete the mission because of clouds. In Italy, medium bombers hit Tirana Airfield, a railroad bridge N of Orvieto, and a viaduct at Terni; the XII Air Support Command, NATBF, and RAF DAF attack communications and shipping targets, hitting vessels, vehicles, trains, roads, bridges, and the town areas in and around Formia, Sora, Chieti, Minturno, Sessa Aurunca, Popoli, Terracina, between Ancona- Pedaso, Frosolone (just before it is taken by allied ground forces), and along the Dalmatian coast of Yugoslavia. MONDAY, 25 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command P-39's strafe and bomb the landing ground at Podgorica; XII Air Support Command, NATBF and RAF DAF concentrate on blocking roads and destroying bridges; town areas, vehicles, radio stations, trains, and vessels are also attacked; targets attacked are in or near Frosinone, Formia, Gaeta, Cetraro, along the Sangro River, Kuna, along the Dalmatian coast of Yugoslavia, W of Lagosta Island and S of Rome; Tarquinia Airfield is also bombed. HQ 324th Fighter Group and it's 314th Fighter Squadron transfer from Menzel Heurr, Tunisia to Cercola, Italy with P-40's. The squadron, which has been out of combat since 21 Jul, will fly it's first mission on 30 Oct. The 36th Troop Carrier Squadron, 316th Troop Carrier Group, transfers from Mazara to Castelvetrano, Sicily with C-47's. The 64th Fighter Squadron, 57th Fighter Group, transfers from Foggia to Amendola, Italy with P-40's. The 486th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 340th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfers from Catania, Sicily to San Pancrazio, Italy with B-25's. MONDAY, 26 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Greece, B-25's and P-38's of the XII Bomber Command attack the airfields of Salonika/Sedhes and Megalo Mikra. In Italy, XII Air Support Command and RAF DAF fighters and fighter-bombers attack gun emplacements and road junctions in the battle area along the E coast and in the center of Italy, also destroying many vehicles and parked aircraft in the Ancona area, where railroad facilities are also hit; a schooner at Porto Civitanova is left smoking; medium bombers of the NATBF bomb Terracina and an ammunition dump. WEDNESDAY, 27 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Austria, 150+ B-17's and B-24's bomb Wiener-Neustadt and railroad tracks and installations and bridges at Friedberg and Ebenfurth. Weather severely curtails NATBF missions and XII Air Support Command operations in support of ground forces. Fighter-bombers attack Gaeta, Italy and bomb small vessels on the Dalmatian coast at Opuzen, Yugoslavia. HQ 57th Fighter Group and it's 65th and 66th Fighter Squadrons transfer from Foggia to Amendola, Italy with P-40's. The 315th and 316th Fighter Squadrons, 324th Fighter Group, transfer from Menzel Heurr, Tunisia to Cercola, Italy with P-40's. THURSDAY, 28 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): Weather prevents most Twelfth Air Force operations planned for the day. No missions are flown by the XII Bomber Command. In Italy, XII Air Support Command A-36's hit several highways and bridges in advance of the battleline and attack gun positions in the Vairano area and transportation targets in the Rome area. The 28th Troop Carrier Squadron, 60th Troop Carrier Group, transfers from Gela to Gerbini, Sicily with C-47's. The 346th Fighter Squadron, 350th Fighter Group, transfers from Rerhaia, Algeria to Sardinia with P-39's. FRIDAY, 29 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, 100+ XII Bomber Command B-17's, escorted by P-38's, bomb the Genoa marshalling yard and also hit the Sampierdarena marshalling yard, San Giorgio instrument factory, and ordnance, electric, and fitting plants and bridges at Genoa- Ansaldo; the XII Air Support Command, NATBF, and RAF DAF are forced by bad weather to abandon several missions in support of ground forces. Troops and gun positions are attacked on 2 occasions and several bridges are hit; Giulianova harbor and shipping are successfully attacked. HQ 57th Bombardment Wing transfers from Naples to Foggia, Italy. HQ 60th Troop Carrier Group and it's 11th Troop Carrier Squadron transfer from Gela to Gerbini, Sicily with C-47's. The 487th and 488th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium), 340th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfer from Catania, Sicily to San Pancrazio, Italy with B-25's. SATURDAY, 30 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Bomber Command B-24's bomb the Genoa marshalling yard and nearby Sampierdarena and Genoa-Ansaldo steel works; B-17's bomb Savona and Varazze, Porto Maurizio, and the Imperia marshalling yard; weather reduces the efforts of NATAF elements; NATBF B-25's bomb Frosinone; fighter-bombers, mainly of the XII Air Support Command, hit bridges, junctions, shipping, marshalling yard, gun positions, and vehicles at several locations, including Giulianova, Ancona, Ortona, Sessa Aurunca, Mignano, and Cassino. SUNDAY, 31 OCTOBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN (Twelfth Air Force): XII Bomber Command B-17's bomb Antheor viaduct in France. In Italy, B-26's hit Anzio; B-25's attack docks and shipping at Civitavecchia; P-38's strafe and bomb Tirana airfield; weather cancels all NATAF attacks except for 11 P-40's which bomb and strafe a tanker off Split, Yugoslavia, leaving it burning. XII Air Support Command fighters fly an uneventful naval escort. HQ 1st Fighter Group and it's 71st Fighter Squadron transfer from Mateur to Djedeida, Tunisia with P-38's. The 379th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 310th Bombardment Group (Medium), ceases operating from Oudna and returns to it's base at Menzel Temime, Tunisia with B-25's.

NOVEMBER 1943 - MEDITERRANEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS (MTO)

MONDAY, 1 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): The Fifteenth Air Force is activated, with HQ at Tunis, Tunisia and Lieutenant General James H. Doolittle as Commanding General. The following Twelfth Air Force units are transferred to the new Fifteenth Air Force: B-17 Units ---------- 5th Bombardment Wing at Depienne, Tunisia 2d Bombardment Group (Heavy) [20th, 49th, 96th and 429th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy)] at Massicault, Tunisia 97th Bombardment Group (Heavy) [340th, 341st, 342d and 414th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy)] at Depienne, Tunisia 99th Bombardment Group (Heavy) [346th, 347th, 348th and 416th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy)] at Oudna, Tunisia 301st Bombardment Group (Heavy) [32d, 352d, 353d and 419th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy)] at Oudna, Tunisia B-24 Units ---------- 98th Bombardment Group (Heavy) [343d, 344th, 345th and 415th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy)] at Hergla, Tunisia 376th Bombardment Group (Heavy) [512th, 513th, 514th and 515th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy)] at Enfidaville, Tunisia B-25 Units (Groups transferred to Twelfth Air Force on 3 Nov 43) ---------- 47th Bombardment Wing (Medium) at Hammamet, Tunisia 310th Bombardment Group (Medium) [379th, 380th, 381st and 428th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium)] at Menzel Temime, Tunisia 321st Bombardment Group (Medium) [445th, 446th, 447th and 448th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium)] at Grottaglie, Italy B-26 Units (all transferred back to Twelfth Air Force at end of year) ---------- 42d Bombardment Wing (Medium) at Ariana, Tunisia 17th Bombardment Group (Medium) [34th, 37th, 95th and 432d Bombardment Squadrons (Medium)] at Djedeida, Tunisia 319th Bombardment Group (Medium) [437th, 438th, 439th and 440th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium)] in Sardinia 320th Bombardment Group (Medium) [441st, 442d, 443d and 444th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium)] in Sardinia P-38 Units ---------- 1st Fighter Group [27th, 71st and 94th Fighter Squadrons] in Sardinia 14th Fighter Group [37th, 48th and 49th Fighter Squadrons] at Ste-Marie-du-Zit, Tunisia 82d Fighter Group [95th, 96th and 97th Fighter Squadrons] at Lecce, Italy P-47 Unit --------- 325th Fighter Group [317th, 318th and 319th Fighter Squadrons] at Mateur, Tunisia Other aircraft -------------- 68th Reconnaissance Group at Massicault, Tunisia 16th Reconnaissance Squadron (Bomber) at Foch Field, Tunisia with B-17 111th Reconnaissance Squadron (Fighter) at Pomigliano, Italy with A-36 and F-6 122d Liaison Squadron at Berteaux, Algeria with B-17 154th Reconnaissance Squadron (Fighter) at Nouvion, Algeria with P-51 In Italy, B-l7's bomb the town and harbor of La Spezia and a railroad bridge at Vezzano; B-25's hit marshalling yards at Rimini and Ancona. Fighters fly escort. During the month of Nov 43, HQ 68th Reconnaissance Group transfers from Massicault, Tunisia to Manduria, Italy. HQ 319th Bombardment Group (Medium) and it's 437th, 438th, 439th and 440th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium) transfer from Djedeida, Tunisia to Decimomannu, Sardinia with B-26's. HQ 320th Bombardment Group (Medium) transfers from El Bathan, Tunisia to Sardinia. The 27th and 94th Fighter Squadrons, 1st Fighter Group, transfer from Mateur, Tunisia to Djedeida, Tunisia with P-38's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): With the activation of the Fifteenth AF on this date, the units of the XII Bomber Command transfer to the new air force. Northwest African Tactical Bomber Force (NATBF) aircraft bomb shipping in harbors of Ancona, Italy and Split, Yugoslavia, hit a tunnel mouth near Antrodoco, Italy, and attack scattered gun positions and motor transport on both the US Fifth and British Eighth Army fronts. The XII Air Support Command hits numerous bridges and junctions and the town of Pontecorvo, Italy. The Royal Air Force (RAF) Desert Air Force (DAF) hits inland roads and vehicles in advance of the battleline, shipping at Split, Yugoslavia and the town of Carpinone, Italy. During Nov, the 15th Photographic Squadron (Heavy), 3d Photographic Reconnaissance and Mapping Group, transfers from La Marsa, Tunisia to Grottaglie, Italy with B-17, B-25 and F-5. TUESDAY, 2 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-17's and B-24's bomb the aircraft factory and surrounding industrial complex at Wiener-Neustadt, Austria; the bombers claim 50+ attacking fighters destroyed. In Italy, B-25's bomb the Ancona marshalling yard; B-26's bomb the harbor at Civitavecchia and miss a railroad bridge near Amelia; P-38's escort the heavy bombers and the B-26's. The 379th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 310th Bombardment Group (Medium), based at Menzel Temime, Tunisia begins operating from Ed Adem, Libya with B-25's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, NATBF light and medium bombers hit gun positions and an ammunition dump on the British Eighth Army front, railroad facilities at Aquila, and the coast road at Terracina; at night, light bombers hit Penna Point and Zara, Yugoslavia; XII Air Support Command and RAF DAF fighters and fighter-bombers attack gun positions and ammunition dumps along the British Eighth Army front, hit gun positions S of Isernia, bomb Fondi, and attack several bridges and junctions in advance of the US Fifth Army front; numerous trucks and a train also are strafed. HQ 12th Bombardment Group (Medium) and it's 434th Bombardment Squadron (Medium) transfer from Gerbini, Sicily to Foggia, Italy with B-25's. WEDNESDAY, 3 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): The 2 B-25 groups [310th and 321st Bombardment Group (Medium)] of the Fifteenth Air Force are transferred back to the Twelfth Air Force. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Fifteenth Air Force P-38's escort B-25's on a raid against Araxos Airfield, Greece. The target is well covered and several parked airplanes are destroyed. In Italy, the NATBF hits a dump at Cupello, the railway station at Cesano, a road junction at Alfedena, the town areas of Ceprano and Palmoli, and numerous vehicles; XII Air Support Command and RAF DAF fighters and fighter-bombers attack gun positions at Cupello, landing grounds near Pescara and Ancona, the airfield at Cisterna di Latina, the Ceccano railroad yards, the town of Pozzilli, roads in the Venafro-Cassino area, and several bridges and junctions. Many of the day's missions are flown in direct support of the British Eighth Army's advance. The 82d Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 12th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfers from Gerbini, Sicily to Foggia, Italy with B-25's. THURSDAY, 4 NOVEMBER 1993 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-17's bomb railroads between Montalto di Castro and Orbetello, between Orbetello and Talamone, and between San Vincenzo and Cecina; bomb-carrying P-38's, escorted by others, hit a tunnel N of Terni and strafe Montalto di Castro. HQ 325th Fighter Group and it's 317th, 318th and 319th Fighter Squadron transfer from Mateur to Soliman, Tunisia with P-47's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Brigadier General Donald A Davison takes command of the XII Air Force Engineer Command (Provisional), following the command's assignment to the Twelfth Air Force on 1 Nov. In Italy, XII Air Support Command and RAF fighters and fighter-bombers hit trucks and trains in the Sora-Avezzano area, the airfields of Furbara and Tarquinia, and small vessels off Pescara, Italy and Solta, Yugoslavia. The 522d and 524th Fighter-Bomber Squadrons, 27th Fighter-Bomber Group, transfer from Capaccio to Paestum and Guado Airfield, Italy respectively with A-36's. FRIDAY, 5 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 3 B-24's on a low-level raid bomb the Falconara-Marittima railroad and highway bridges in Italy. The 432d Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 17th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfers from Djedeida, Tunisia to Villacidro, Sardinia with B-26's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): XII Air Support Command B-25's, escorted by Fifteenth Air Force P-38's, hit the Berat-Kucove Airfield in Albania. In Italy, the NATBF bombs roads E of Atina and N of Rome, and hits vehicles moving S from Pescara; XII Air Support Command and RAF DAF fighters and fighter-bombers attack motor transport N of Vasto, bridges and roads W of Isernia, Cassino, and Atena Lucana, the town of Castrocielo, and vessels off Split, Yugoslavia. HQ 17th Bombardment Group (Medium) transfers from Djedeida, Tunisia to Sardinia. HQ 350th Fighter Group transfers from Rerhaiak Algeria to Sardinia. The 81st and 83d Bombardment Squadrons (Medium), 12th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfer from Gerbini, Sicily to Foggia, Italy with B-25's. The 415th Night Fighter Squadron, XII Air Support Command, transfers from Cassibile to Cantania, Sicily with Beaufighters. The 523d Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 27th Fighter-Bomber Group, transfers from Capaccio to Gaudo Airfield, Italy with A-36's. SATURDAY, 6 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, 4 B-17's attack the Fiora River bridge, 3 attack a bridge N of Orbetello, and 11 P-38's attack a bridge S of Orvieto. P-38's escorted by others, hit approaches to a bridge near Monte Molino, and the escorting fighters afterwards strafe Tarquinia Airfield, a train N of Civitavecchia, and vehicles between Montefiascone and Vetralla. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Air Support Command fighter-bombers strike gun positions, bridges, and roads around Mignano, vehicles N of Cassino, and a train N of Aquino airfield. Other Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) fighters attack numerous road and rail transport targets through-out Italy N of the battleline and in Yugoslavia. SUNDAY, 7 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Bad weather cancels heavy bomber operations. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): NATBF bombers hit gun position along the British Eighth and US Fifth Army fronts, shipping at Ancona, Italy harbor, and the town of Ulcinj, Yugoslavia; Durazzo, Albania is bombed at night. XII Air Support Command and other fighters of the NATAF hit the harbor and shipping at Split and a train near Metkovic, Yugoslavia, and attack bridges, road junctions, town area, and trucks in the Mignano-Cassino and Pontecorvo, Italy. areas. The 10th Troop Carrier Squadron, 60th Troop Carrier Group, transfer from Gela to Gerbini, Sicily with C-47's. MONDAY, 8 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, 81 B-17's bomb the Turin ball bearing works, marshalling yard, and nearby motor and aircraft engine works; P-38's provide escort as far N as Imperia. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Weather cancels all XII Air Support Command missions except fighter patrols. In Italy, NATBF bombers and RAF DAF fighters fly only 6 missions, hitting gun positions along the battleline, vehicles W of the Sangro River, and trains at Civitanova and Pescara. TUESDAY, 9 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-24's attack the Villarperosa ball-bearing works at Turin and B-17's hit the Genoa-Ansaldo steel works. P-38's provide escort. The 441st, 442d, 443d and 444th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium), 320th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfer from El Bathan, Tunisia to Decimomannu, Sardinia with B-26's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, the NATBF bombs Formia and Itri as a diversion to the naval bombardment of Formia and Gaeta. XlI Air Support Command fighter-bombers attack roads and bridges in the Mignano-Ceprano area while other NATAF fighter-bombers hit shipping in the harbor at Split, Yugoslavia and rail targets in the Rome-La Spezia area and vessels, radio stations, and gun emplacements off the coast of Albania. The 12th Troop Carrier Squadron, 60th Troop Carrier Group, transfers from Gela to Gerbini, Sicly with C-47's. The squadron has been operating from Comiso since 22 Oct. The 379th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 310th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfers from Menzel Temime, Tunisia to Philippeville, Algeria with B-25's. The squadron is operating from El Adem, Libya. WEDNESDAY, 10 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-24's bomb the Villarperosa ball-bearing works at Turin, and B-17's pound a bridge and marshalling yards at Bolzano. P-38's escort the B-24's all the way and accompany the B-17's almost to the target. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): NATBF bombers hit shipping at Split, Yugoslavia and Durazzo, Albania. In Italy, XII Air Support Command and RAF fighter-bombers hit Rocca and nearby gun positions, and trains and troops S of Rome; fighters strafe trucks and trains in the Rome-La Spezia and the Piombino-Leghorn areas. HQ 310th Bombardment Group (Medium) and it's 380th Bombardment Squadron (Medium) transfer from Menzel Temime, Tunisia to Philippeville, Algeria with B-25's. A detachment of the 380th is operating from Oudna, Tunisia. THURSDAY, 11 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In France, 28 B-24's attack the Annecy ball bearing plant and the viaduct at Antheor. HQ 47th Bombardment Wing (Medium) transfers from Hammamet, Tunisia to Manduria, Italy. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, US and RAF light bombers and fighter-bombers, in support of the US Fifth and British Eighth Armies, hit troop and gun concentrations and communications in the Rocca and Palena areas; other NATAF aircraft bomb the town of Rocca, Bussi sul Tirino explosive works near Popoli, and docks at Civitavecchia, and strafe strongpoints at Roccaraso and Atessa; fighters hit motor transport in the coastal area between the Sangro and Pescara Rivers. The 414th Night Fighter Squadron, 63d Fighter Wing, transfers from Rerhaia, Algeria to Elmas, Sardinia with Beaufighters. FRIDAY, 12 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-26's attack railroad bridges and tracks in the Montalto di Castro and Orbetello areas, but heavy cloud cover prevents effective hits on the targets. P-38's fly an air-sea rescue patrol off the mouth of the Semeni River in Albania. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, NATBF light bombers hit guns, troops, and railway facilities near Palena, the town of Atina, and the road at Acquafondata. Medium bombers hit the Berat/Kucove airfield and an oil refinery in Albania after failing to locate targets near Athens, Greece. In Italy during the night of 12/13 Nov, light bombers attack the Arezzo marshalling yard and Perugia airfield; fighter-bombers of the XII Air Support Command and RAF DAF continue to provide close support to the US Fifth and British Eighth Armies, blasting gun positions and motor transport, and also attacking targets (aircraft, guns, rail yards, bridge, and trains) around Bracciano Lake, Orbetello, Rieti, Sant'Elia Fiumerapido, Opuzen, Ancona, and Iesi. SATURDAY, 13 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Weather limits operations to air-sea rescue patrols which are hampered by overcast. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, NATBF light bombers hit Palena and Atina and later bomb Civitavecchia harbor and a road W of Terracina; XII Air Support Command fighter-bombers, along with RAF DAF airplanes, bomb Giulianova harbor and shipping, roads leading to the battle zone, and landing grounds of Aquino, Frosinone, and Marcigliana; fighters hit train and trucks in the Pescara-Rieti area. SUNDAY, 14 NOVEMBER 1943 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): NATBF B-25's, escorted by Fifteenth Air Force P-38's, bomb the Sofia, Bulgaria marshalling yard; the P-38's claim 5 enemy aircraft destroyed. In Italy, XII Air Support Command operations are curtailed by weather, and only battle area patrols are flown; RAF DAF fighter-bombers hit trains on the E coast of Italy near Avezzano, along the Dalmatian coast SE of Metkovic, Yugoslavia, and at Sarajevo, Yugoslavia; fighters strafe the airfields at Furbara and Tarquinia, Italy. The 428th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 310th Bombardment Group (Medium), ceases operating from Oudna and returns to it's base at Menzel Temime, Tunisia with B-25's. MONDAY, 15 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-24's bomb Eleusis airfield in Greece; P-38's provide escort. HQ 42d Bombardment Group (Medium) transfers from Ariana, Tunisia to Elmas, Sardinia. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): XII Air Support Command B-25's bomb Kalamaki airfield in Greece, and its fighters patrol the battle area. Other NATAF fighters hit road traffic S of Ancona, Italy. TUESDAY, 16 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In France, B-17's bomb the Istres-Le-Tube airfield, and B-26's hit Salon-de-Provence airfield. P-38's escort the B-26's and also a NATAF B-25 attack on the airfield at Eleusis, Greece. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): B-25's bomb the airfields at Sibenik, Yugoslavia and Eleusis, Greece; the latter mission is escorted by Fifteenth Air Force P-38's. WEDNESDAY, 17 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-17's hit the airfield at Eleusis, Greece, destroying several parked airplanes and scoring many hits on hangars, other buildings, and runways; P-38's escort the B-17's as well as NATAF B-25's attacking the airfield at Kalamaki, Greece. HQ 376th Bombardment Group (Heavy) transfers from Enfidaville, Tunisia to San Pancrazio, Italy. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): B-25's bomb the airfield at Kalamaki, Greece. In Italy, fighters hit trucks N of Ancona at Macerata. The 87th Fighter Squadron, 79th Fighter Group, transfers from Salsola to Madna Airfield, Italy with P-40's. The 381st Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 310th Bombardment Group (Medium), ceases operating from Oudna, Tunisia and returns to it's base at Menzel Temime, Tunisia with B-25's. THURSDAY, 18 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-17's, with P-38 escort, pound the airfield at Eleusis, Greece. P-38's also escort an NATAF attack on the same target and escort a supply dropping mission to Yugoslavia. HQ 98th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and it's 343d, 344th, 345th and 415th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy) transfer from Hergla, Tunisia to Brindisi, Italy with B-24's. The 514th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 376th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers from Enfidaville, Tunisia to San Pancrazio, Italy with B-24's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Medium and light bombers of the XII Air Support Command and RAF attack the airfield at Larissa, Greece, a billeting area at Rivisondoli, Italy and road, railway and town area W of San Vito Chietino and at Lanciano, Italy. In Yugoslavia, fighter-bombers hit a ship in the Krka River, trains at Knin marshalling yard and between Knin and Kosovo, the landing ground at Sinj, harbor and vessels at Sibenik, and defended points and gun positions along the battleline in Italy. HQ 33d Fighter Group transfers from Paestum to Santa Maria, Italy. The 23d Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron, 5th Photographic Reconnaissance Group, based at La Marsa, Tunisia with F-5's, begins operating from Foggia, Italy. The 345th Fighter Squadron, 350th Fighter Group, transfers from Rerhaia, Algeria to Sardinia with P-39's. The 347th Fighter Squadron, 350th Fighter Group, transfers from Djidjelli to Rerhaia, Algeria with P-39's. The 381st Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 310th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfers from Menzel Temime, Tunisia to Philippeville, Algeria with B-25's. FRIDAY, 19 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Weather causes the recall of all aircraft dispatched. The 512th, 513th and 515th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 376th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfer from Enfidaville, Tunisia to San Pancrazio, Italy with B-24's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Air Support Command A-36's and P-40's bomb a bridge E of Cassino and the bridge and village of Pontecorvo, and, along with RAF DAF fighter-bombers, hit strongpoints around the village of Barrea while supporting ground forces. Fighters (mostly RAF DAF) also strafe trucks and trains around Rieti, Italy and Metkovic, Yugoslavia. HQ 79th Fighter Group and it's 85th and 86th Fighter Squadrons transfer from Foggia to Madna Airfield, Italy with P-40's. HQ 86th Fighter-Bomber Group and it's 525th Fighter-Bomber Squadron transfer from Serretella Airfield to Pomigliano, Italy with A-36's. HQ 340th Bombardment Group (Medium) and it's 486th Bombardment Squadron (Medium) transfer from San Pancrazio to Foggia, Italy with B-25's. The 380th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 310th Bombardment Group (Medium), based at Philippeville, Algeria, ceases operating from Oudna, Tunisia with B-25's and returns to base. The 428th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 310th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfers from Menzel Temime, Tunisia to Philippeville, Algeria with B-25's. SATURDAY, 20 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Weather cancels all bomber operations. Operations are restricted to weather reconnaissance from Decimomannu, Sardinia to Cape Linaro, Italy. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, XII Air Support Command and RAF DAF fighters carry out uneventful armed reconnaissance; the NATBF hits the Porto Civitanova railway junction, Pedaso, Giulianova, and Loreto. HQ 321st Bombardment Group (Medium) and it's 445th and 448th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium) transfer from Grottaglie to Amendola, Italy with B-25's. SUNDAY, 21 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-26's bomb the harbor at Civitavecchia, a bridge at Fano, and marshalling yard at Chiusi; P-38's provide escort to the latter target. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, NATBF B-25's bomb gun emplacements at Gaeta; US and RAF fighter-bombers of the RAF DAF hit strongpoints in the Santa Maria Imbaro and Poggiofiorito areas; fighters carry out patrols and reconnaissance along the battleline along the Corigliano and Sangro Rivers. MONDAY, 22 NOVEMBER 1943 MTO; President Franklin D Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston S Churchill and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek confer in Cairo, Egypt. Talks last until 26 Nov and concern Operation OVERLORD (the overall plan for the invasion of W Europe), the possibility of expanding operations in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations, and future operations against Japan. It is decided to make an amphibious landing and offensive in Burma (Operation CHAMPION) and to base B-29's in the China-Burma-India Theater (Operation TWILIGHT). The 90th Photographic Wing (Reconnaissance) is activated at La Marsa, Tunisia. The group will provide photographic reconnaissance for both the Twelfth and Fifteenth Air Forces until the wing's groups were reassigned on 1 Oct 44. STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-26's, escorted by P-38's, hit the railroad center at Foligno, scoring numerous hits; others attack a bridge at Ciciana. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, 100+ XII Air Support Command P-40's, B-25's, and RAF Baltimores, attack strongpoints in the Lanciano-Fossacesia area, concentrating on gun positions; P-40's also hit roads and railways at Fabriano, the towns of Viticuso and Vallerotonda, and as far N as Urbino; A-36's hit chemical works, harbor and railroad yards at Civitavecchia and bomb the village of San Vittore del Lazio. The 99th Fighter Squadron, XII Air Support Command, transfers from Foggia to Madna, Italy with P-40's. TUESDAY, 23 NOVEMBER 1943 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Weather limits operations to fighter patrols of the battle area. THURSDAY, 24 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-17's, with P-38 escorts, strike the submarine base at Toulon, France and the marshalling yard at Sofia, Bulgaria. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, NATBF bombers, along with RAF DAF fighter-bombers, in close support of the British Eighth Army, hit gun positions and defended points in the Fossacesia area; XII Air Support Command A-36's, in support of the US Fifth Army, hit roads NW of battleline, and bomb the harbor at Civitavecchia. THURSDAY, 25 NOVEMBER 1943 ANTISUBMARINE OPERATIONS (First Air Force): The 2d Antisubmarine Squadron (Heavy), 480th Antisubmarine Group, begins a movement from Port Lyautey, French Morocco to the US with B-24's. STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Bad weather causes a recall of B-24's dispatched to the air depot at Klagenfurt, Austria. P-38's on supply and air-sea rescue escort duty also abort due to rain storms. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, light and medium bombers of the XII Air Support Command, along with Allied airplanes, bomb gun positions and defended points in the Lanciano-Fossacesia area; medium bombers also hit Sarajevo and Travnik, Yugoslavia and Ancona, Italy; US and RAF fighters attack vehicles, gun positions, and strongpoints in the Casoli- Castelfrentano-Lanciano-Fossacesia area. The 447th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 321st Bombardment Group (Medium), transfers from Grottaglie to Amendola, Italy with B-25's. The 488th and 489th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium), 340th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfer from San Pancrazio to Foggia, Italy with B-25's. FRIDAY, 26 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-17's of the 2d and 99th Bombardment Groups (Heavy) hit the viaduct at Recco; 301st Bombardment Group (Heavy) B-17's bomb Rimini marshalling yard and bridge; 17th Bombardment Group (Medium) B-26'a bomb Cassino while B-24's of the 376th Bombardment Group (Heavy) attack bridges in the Fano, Cesano, Senigallia, and Falconara areas, scoring hits or near misses at Fano, Falconara and Senigallia. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's and A-20's along with RAF light bombers, attack the marshalling yard and harbor at Ancona, defended positions near Fossacesia, Lanciano, and Castelfrentano; US and RAF fighter-bombers hit these same positions and also attack troop concentration near Palombaro and N of Casoli. The detachment of the 12th Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron, 3d Photographic Group (Reconnaissance), at Ajaccio/Campo del Oro, Corsica with F-4's and F-5's, returns to it's base at La Marsa, Tunisia. The 379th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 310th Bombardment Group (Medium), based at Philippeville, Libya ceases operating from El Adem, Libya and starts operating from Gambit, Libya with B-25's. The 487th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 340th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfers from San Pancrazio to Foggia, Italy with B-25's. SATURDAY, 27 NOVEMBER 1943 ANTISUBMARINE OPERATIONS (First Air Force): The 1st Antisubmarine Squadron (Heavy), 480th Antisubmarine Group, begins a movement from Port Lyautey, French Morocco to the US with B-24's. STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-17's, with P-38 escort, bomb the marshalling yard and bridges at Rimini; other B-17's hit bridges and the marshalling yard at Grizzana and a bridge approach on the Reno River 25 miles (40 km) SW of Bologna. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy during the day and night, Twelfth Air Force fighters, light and medium bombers and aircraft of the associated RAF units of the NATAF attack enemy positions, gun emplacements, roads, vehicles, railroad facilities, and targets of opportunity in the Lanciano-Fossacesia-Castelfrentano-Casoli area. B-25's also bomb Porto Civitanova, Italy and Sibenik, Yugoslavia. The 5th Photographic Squadron (Light), Twelfth Air Force, transfers from La Marsa, Tunisia to Pomigliano, Italy with F-5's. The 5th has been operating from Pomigliano since 14 Oct. The 446th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 321st Bombardment Group (Medium), transfers from Grottaglie to Amendola, Italy with B-25's. SUNDAY, 28 NOVEMBER 1943 MTO: The Tehran Conference begins and lasts until 30 Nov. President Franklin D Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston S Churchill, and Marshall Josef V Stalin discuss further action against Germany. Operations OVERLORD (the overall plan for the invasion of W Europe) and ANVIL (the plan for the invasion of S France) are given priority over all other operations. Stalin agrees to commit Soviet forces against Japan after Germany's defeat. STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-26's are recalled over S France due to bad weather; the medium bombers and their fighter escort claim 5 fighters destroyed in combat over the French coast; B-25's, with fighter escort, bomb the railroad viaduct at Dogna, Italy. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Yugoslavia, B-25's bomb warehouses, docks, marshalling yards, barracks, shipping, and other targets at Sibenik, Zara, and Dubrovnik; RAF DAF fighters strafe trains between Dubrovnik and Metkovic. In Italy, Twelfth Air Force fighters hit vehicles and troops in the battle area; Allied fighter-bombers bomb and strafe buildings, trucks, and roads in the Lanciano-Fossacesia-Caoli areas. MONDAY, 29 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, 70 B-26's bomb the airfield and marshalling yards at Grosseto; B-24's, with P-38 escort, bomb the Furbara area; many other medium and heavy bombers are prevented from bombing targets by bad weather. The 27th, 71st and 94th Fighter Squadrons, 1st Fighter Group, transfer from Djedeida, Tunisia to Monserrato, Sardinia with P-38's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): B-25's bomb Sarajevo, Yugoslavia and road and rail bridges at Giulianova, Italy. US, South African Air Force (SAAF), and RAF light bombers hit enemy strongpoints at San Vito Chietino and the Castelfrentano-Lanciano-Fossacesia areas; Allied fighter-bombers bomb enemy forward positions around Fossacesia and Lanciano of Italy. The 37th Troop Carrier Squadron, 316th Troop Carrier Group, transfers from El Aouina, Tunisia to Borizzo, Sicily with C-47's. The 415th Night Fighter Squadron, XII Air Support Command, based at Catania, Sicily with Beaufighters, sends a detachment to Montecorvino, Italy. TUESDAY, 30 NOVEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-26's attack the Monte Molino railroad bridge, Montalto di Castro, and areas around Bastia and Torgiano; accuracy is severely hampered by overcast; B-24's, with P-38 escort, bomb Fiume through the overcast. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, A-20's, operating in conjunction with light bombers of the SAAF and RAF attack ground installations and defended areas around Lanciano, Fossacesia, Orsogna, Castelfrentano, and Guardiagrele; fighter-bombers, [US, RAAF, SAAF and RAF] hit pre-arranged targets in the battle area, and by hitting targets of opportunity on roads between Lanciano to Mozzagrogna aid in defeating a counterattack against the US 34th Infantry Division on Monte Pantano. The 23d Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron, 5th Photographic Reconnaissance Group, transfers from La Marsa, Tunisia to Foggia, Italy with F-5's. The squadron has been operating from Foggia since 18 Nov.

DECEMBER 1943 - MEDITERRANEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS (MTO)

WEDNESDAY, 1 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, 100+ B-17's bomb the Turin ball bearing works and marshalling yard; escorting P-38's battle enemy fighters without either losses or victories; the B-17's claim 2 enemy fighters shot down; B-24's and other P-38's are recalled because of weather; B-26's, with fighter escort, attack bridges and railroad facilities at Aulla, Cecina, and Sestri Levante. HQ Fifteenth Air Force and 5th Bombardment Wing transfer from Tunis, Tunisia to Bari and Foggia, Italy, respectively. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): B-25's bomb gun positions in the Sant' Ambrogio area; fighter-bombers, including some Royal Air Force (RAF), Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) and South African Air Force (SAAF) aircraft, hit trucks, gun positions, and other military targets E of Casoli, at Lanciano, near Guardiagrele, W of Mignano, W of Minturno, and near Chieti. Several of these missions are in support of the US Fifth and British Eighth Armies. During the month of Dec 43, HQ XII Bomber Command transfers from Tunis, Tunisia to Bari, Italy. HQ 52d Fighter Group and it's 5th Fighter Squadron transfer from Boccadifalco and Bo Rizzo, Sicily respectively to Corsica with Spitfires. THURSDAY, 2 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-24's, with fighter escort, bomb the town area, railroad bridge and marshalling yard at Bolzano; B-26's achieve excellent results in a raid on a bridge S of Orvieto and the marshalling yard at Arezzo. B-17's blast submarine pens at Marseilles, France. HQ 2d Bombardment Group (Heavy) transfers from Massicault to Bizerte, Tunisia. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): B-25's, A-20's, and RAF light bombers support ground forces in the Monte Trocchio area, and other B-25's, A-20's, and RAF and SAAF airplanes support ground forces near Sant' Ambrogio; more B-25's hit bridge and approaches near Chieti; fighters strafe trucks and trains while fighter-bombers blast gun positions along the US Fifth and British Eighth Army fronts, and hit harbors and shipping along the Yugoslav coast at or near Omis, Drvenicki, Trogir, Vrbnik, and Ston. FRIDAY, 3 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-24's, with fighter escort, hit the Rome/Casale airfield in Italy; B-26's and escorting P-38's are recalled due to weather. Other P-38's escort a supply mission to Yugoslavia. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): The Twelfth Air Force transfers its entire II Air Service Area Command with all of its subordinate units to the Fifteenth Air Force, where it shortly becomes the XV Air Force Service Command. This is a major step toward making the Fifteenth a separate, self-sufficient air force. B-25's bomb harbor and marshalling yard at Sibenik, Yugoslavia. In Italy, fighter-bombers, along with RAF Desert Air Force (DAF) airplanes, hit tanks and trucks in the Guardiagrele-Lanciano areas. Other fighter-bombers attack a vessel at Sibenik, Yugoslavia and vehicles and trains N of Rome. Anzio and Nettuno, Italy are also bombed. The 2d Fighter Squadron, 52d Fighter Group, transfers from Boccadifalco, Sicily to Corsica with Spitfires. SATURDAY, 4 DECEMBER 1943 MTO: The Second Cairo conference, Operation SEXTANT, opens and lasts until 6 Dec. President Franklin D Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston S Churchill, and President Ismet Inonu of Turkey attend. Churchill discusses the possibility of Turkey entering the war; the plan for the amphibious assault in the Bay of Bengal is cancelled; A tentative timetable is set up for Pacific offensive; and a unified Command is established in the Mediterranean effective 10 Dec. STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): All missions are cancelled by bad weather. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Weather grounds Twelfth Air Force elements of Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF). The 4th Fighter Squadron, 52d Fighter Group, transfers from Boccadifalco, Sicily to Corsica with Spitfires. SUNDAY, 5 DECEMBER 1943 MTO: At the Cairo Conference, President Roosevelt decides on General Dwight D Eisenhower as the Supreme Allied Commander for Operation OVERLORD, the invasion of W Europe. The CCS issue a directive for the organization of the Mediterranean Allied Air Forces (MAAF) consolidating British and US forces of the Mediterranean Air Command (MAC) and Northwest African Air Force (NAAF). STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): The 37th and 95th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium), 17th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfer from Djedeida, Tunisia to Villacidro, Sardinia with B-26's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Weather hampers medium bomber operations, but B-25's manage to bomb a bridge at Pescara, Italy and marshalling yard and shipyards at Split, Yugoslavia. In Italy, US fighter- bombers and fighters (and a number of other Allied airplanes) hit gun positions S of Chieti, Italy, a vessel in Poljud, Yugoslavia harbor (near Split), trains and trucks W of Aquino, bridges near Mignano and Ladispoli, the town of Arezzo, airfields at Piombino and Aviano, and building S of Garda Lake. HQ Twelfth Air Force transfers from Tunisia to Italy. MONDAY, 6 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Greece, 45 B-24's bomb Eleusis Airfield while 56 B-17's hit Kalamaki Airfield; other B-17's return to base with bombs because of a heavy overcast; the heavy bombers and escorting P-38's claim several enemy fighters shot down; 1 B-24 is lost to flak. The 34th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 17th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfers from Djedeida, Tunisia to Villacidro, Sardinia. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, P-40 and A-36 fighter- bombers bomb bridges at Ceprano and W of Mignano; weather cancels other operations. The 91st Fighter Squadron, 81st Fighter Group, transfers from Castelvetrano, Sicily to Montecorvino Airfield, Italy with P-39's. The 347th Fighter Squadron, 350th Fighter Group, transfers from Rerhaia, Algeria to Corsica with P-39's. A detachment of the 415th Night Fighter Squadron, 64th Fighter Wing, based at Cantania, Sicily, begins operating from Gaudo Airfield, Italy with Beaufighters. TUESDAY, 7 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Heavy cloud cover severely restricts operations. 1 B-26 attacks a bridge S of Arma di Taggia, Italy. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's and A-36's bomb the harbor and town of Civitavecchia; B-25's also attack Pescara, hitting the railroad, road, and town area; A-36's, P-40's, and RAF DAF fighters hit a gun position W of Orsogna, the towns of Viticuso and San Vittoria, and a bridge at Civitella Roveto. WEDNESDAY, 8 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 120+ B-24's and B-17's attack Tatoi and Eleusis airfields in Greece, and railroad bridges near Orbetello Lake and the town of Porto Santo Stefano in Italy. In Italy, B-26's hit Spoleto viaduct, Orte marshalling yard, and Civitavecchia harbor; other B-26's abort the mission because of weather. HQ 1st Fighter Group and it's 71st Fighter Squadron, transfer from Sardinia to Gioia del Colle, Italy with P-38's. The 20th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 2d Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers from Massicault, Tunisia to Amendola, Italy with B-17's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's bomb bridges, industrial targets, marshalling yard, and town areas of Pescara, Ancona, and Aquila; A-20's hit gun emplacements and bivouac area near Sant' Elia Fiumerapido; other A-20's, operating with RAF and SAAF aircraft attack troop concentration and gun positions near Miplinnico; fighter-bombers of the AAF, RAF, RAAF, and SAAF bomb targets in support of ground troops near Orsogna; A-36's and P-40's hit communications targets (roads, railroads, bridges) at Avezzano, Frosinone, Viticuso, Gaeta, and Sant' Elia Fiumerapido. HQ 3d Photographic Group (Reconnaissance) and it's 12th Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron transfer from La Marsa, Tunisia to San Severo, Italy with F-4's and F-5's. HQ 5th Photographic Reconnaissance Group transfers from La Marsa, Tunisia to San Severo, Italy. THURSDAY, 9 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): P-38's carry out weather reconnaissance over the Adriatic Sea; B-17's of the 2d and 99th Bombardment Groups (Heavy) are recalled because of weather; all groups of the 47th (B-24) and 42d (B-26) Bombardment Wings cancel operations. HQ 2d Bombardment Group (Heavy) and it's 429th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) transfer from Bizerte, Tunisia to Amendola, Italy with B-17's. The 27th Fighter Squadron, 1st Fighter Group, transfers from Monserrato, Sardinia to Gioia del Colle, Italy with P-38's. The 318th and 319th Fighter Squadrons, 325th Fighter Group, transfer from Soliman, Tunisia to Foggia, Italy with P-40's. The 342d Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 97th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers from Depienne, Tunisia to Cerignola, Italy with B-17's. The 352d Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 301st Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers from Oudna, Tunisia to Cerignola, Italy with B-17's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's bomb railway and road bridges at Giulianova, tracks at Pescara and Teramo, and a marshalling yard and ironworks at Terni; A-20's hit gun positions and bivouac area at Sant' Elia Fiumerapido; A-36's and P-40's attack Orsogna and coastal targets in support of the British Eighth Army, Avezzano marshalling yard and villages along the US Fifth Army front, troops at San Pietro Infine and Viticuso and nearby gun positions, viaduct and railway bridge E of Guidonia airfield, crossing at Furbara, and trains and trucks in the Rome area. Brigadier General George H Beverley takes over as the new Commanding General, XII Troop Carrier Command (Provisional). FRIDAY, 10 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-24's, with fighter escort, bomb a marshalling yard at Sofia, Bulgaria; P-38's fly weather reconnaissance in the Sofia and Zara, Yugoslavia areas. B-26's hit bridge approaches W and E of Ventimiglia, Italy. The 94th Fighter Squadron, 1st Fighter Group, transfers from Monserrato, Sardinia to Gioia del Colle, Italy with P-38's. The 96th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 2d Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers from Massicault, Tunisia to Amendola, Italy with B-17's. The 317th Fighter Squadron, 325th Fighter Group, transfers from Soliman, Tunisia to Foggia, Italy with P-47's. The 353d and 419th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 301st Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfer from Oudna, Tunisia to Cerignola, Italy with B-17's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, P-40's and A-36's attack oil tanks, warehouses, railroads, and vessel at Civitavecchia, the town of Acquafondata, and with RAF, SAAF, and RAAF airplanes, hit tactical targets along the British Eighth Army front, and later strafe road traffic in the Canosa Sannita-Chieti area. Fighters also bomb a vessel in the harbor at Split, Yugoslavia. HQ 310th Bombardment Group (Medium) transfers from Philippeville, Algeria to Corsica. The 23d Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron, 5th Photographic Reconnaissance Group, transfers from Foggia to San Severo, Italy with P-38's and F-5's. SATURDAY, 11 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): All operations except weather reconnaissance are cancelled or recalled because of bad weather. HQ 99th Bombardment Group (Heavy) transfers from Oudna, Tunisia to Tortorella Airfield, Italy. HQ 325th Fighter Group transfers from Soliman, Tunisia to Foggia, Italy. The 32d Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 301st Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers from Oudna, Tunisia to Cerignola, Italy with B-17's. The 414th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 97th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers from Depienne, Tunisia to Cerignola, Italy with B-17's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, P-40's and A-36's attack Anzio, Nettuno, Viticuso, San Vittore del Lazio, Pontecorvo, Acquafondata, the railway siding at Arce, tracks and junction N of Ostia, and railway between Ostia and Lido di Roma. Weather causes abandonment of B-25 operations. SUNDAY, 12 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Operations are limited to weather reconnaissance. HQ 14th Fighter Group and it's 37th Fighter Squadron transfer from Ste-Marie-du-Zit, Tunisia to Triolo Airfield, Italy with P-38's. The 341st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 97th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers from Depienne, Tunisia to Cerignola, Italy with B-17's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Weather curtails operations. In Italy, B-25's bomb the road, railroad, and landing ground at Terracina; P-40 and A-36 fighter-bombers hit trucks along roads in the Chieti-Francavilla area and bomb the town of Itri; fighters fly patrols and reconnaissance over the battle area. The 10th Troop Carrier Squadron, 60th Troop Carrier Group, transfers from Gerbini, Sicily to Pomigliano, Italy with C-47's. MONDAY, 13 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Operations are restricted to weather reconnaissance. The 346th, 347th and 348th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 99th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfer from Oudna, Tunisia to Tortorella Airfield, Italy with B-17's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Yugoslavia, B-25's bomb an oil depot, harbor, warehouses, and railway yard at Sibenik and Split. In Italy, P-40 and A-36 fighter-bombers attack defended points in the Miglionico area; quays, roads, railway yard, and gun emplacements at Terracina; and bridges at Pontecorvo and W of Isolella; town areas and bridges at and near Atina and Acquafondsta are also hit. The 91st Fighter Squadron, 81st Fighter Group, based at Montecorvino Airfield, Italy with P-38's and P-39's, begins operating from Capodichino, Italy. TUESDAY, 14 DECEMBER 194 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 150+ B-17's and B-24's, with fighter escorts, bomb Greece. The B-24's hit the Tatoi air depot at Athens; the B-17's hit the Kalamaki and Eleusis air depots at Athens and the docks and shipping at Piraeus. The heavy bombers claim 10 fighters shot down. HQ 90th Reconnaissance Wing transfers from La Marsa, Tunisia to San Severo, Italy. The 340th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 97th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers from Depienne, Tunisia to Cerignola, Italy with B-17's. The 416th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 99th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers from Oudna, Tunisia to Tortorella Airfield, Italy with B-17's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers hit Orte, concentrating on the marshalling yard; light bombers attack road bridge SW of Pontecorvo in front of US Fifth Army lines; P-40 fighter-bombers hit bridges S of Roccasecca and E of Atina; A-36's destroy a bridge at Ceprano and bomb railroad yards, the town area, and highway at Sora, and docks and town area of Civitavecchia. WEDNESDAY, 15 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-17's. with P-38 and P-47 escorts, bomb marshalling yards at Bolzano, Italy and Innsbruck, Austria. B-24's, with P-38 escort, attack Avisio, Italy viaduct. All targets suffer considerable damage. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Yugoslavia, B-25's bomb the airfield at Mostar and A-36 and P-40 fighter-bombers attack vessels, vehicles, and parked aircraft N and E of the Peljesac Peninsula, near Mostar, and at the Zemonico landing ground. In Italy, B-25's and A-20's bomb roads at Pontecorvo and N of Frosinone; fighter-bombers blast gun positions along the US Fifth Army front. THURSDAY, 16 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-24's attack a railroad bridge and tunnel at Dogna and the railroad between Dogna and Chiusaforte; escorting P-38's strafe trains and oil tanks between Portogruaro and Latisana; B-17's, escorted by P-38's and P-47's, bomb the Padua marshalling yard and rail junction; rail lines, rolling stock, and buildings are damaged extensively. . TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Yugoslavia, B-25's bomb shipping at Zara and the harbor and marshalling yard at Sibenik; P-40's and P-47's hit a vessel S of Zara and strafe targets of opportunity on the Peljesac Peninsula. In Italy, A-20's attack gun positions near Mignano; P-40's and A-36's hit gun batteries and strongpoints along the British Eighth Army front S and E of Chieti, gun emplacements and troop concentrations all along the US Fifth Army front, especially NE and S of Cassino, and also bomb Roccasecca and docks at Civitavecchia. FRIDAY, 17 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Operations are restricted to weather reconnaissance. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, A-20's strike an artillery concentration near Sant'Elia Fiumerapido; All B-25 missions are abortive; A-36's and P-40 fighter-bombers bomb positions at Monte Trocchio, Cervaro, and Cardito, and the marshalling yard, barracks, warehouses, and docks at Nettuno and Anzio. In Yugoslavia, P-40's and P-51's, with SAAF escort, strafe a vessel near Trpanj. SATURDAY, 18 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In France, B-26's bomb Var River bridges, destroying a highway bridge and damaging a railroad bridge; other B-26's have less success against the Antheor viaduct, although there are several near misses. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Weather limits operations. In Italy, P-40 fighter-bombers attack positions in Tollo, Canosa Sannita, and Orsogna, and strafe a schooner off Trogir; A-36's hit defended areas near Cassino and at Viticuso, a supply dump and gun emplacement near Tenacina, and positions at Monte Trocchio. SUNDAY, 19 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Austria, about 50 B-24's attack the Messerschmitt plant at Augsburg and and about 100 B-17's hit the marshalling yard at Innsbruck. P-38's and P-47's provide partial escort. 9 heavy bombers are lost; US aircraft claim 37 fighters shot down. In Italy, P-47's of the 325th Fighter Group, dispatched for escort duty, miss the rendezvous with the heavy bombers and instead strafe Ancona Airfield, truck convoys at Porto Civitsnova, a train near Senigallia, and a vessel at Roseto degli Abruzzi; B-26's bomb the Perugia railroad installations and marshalling yards at Castiglione della Valle and Foligno. HQ 98th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and it's 343d, 344th and 415th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy) transfer from Brindisi to Manduria, Italy with B-24's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's bomb the Terni marshalling yard and the Orte marshalling yard and airfield; A-20's attack road, bridge, and the town of Orte and hit Cassino; P-40's bomb Orsogna, Sant' Elia Fiumerapido, and dump near Arce, and hit shipping at Split, Trogir, and Solin, Yugoslavia. A-36's hit railroad and harbor area at Civitavecchia, Italy. MONDAY, 20 DECEMBER 1943 MEDITERRANEAN ALLIED AIR FORCE (MAAF): The MAAF is established, retroactive to 10 Dec 43. Commanded by Air Chief Marshall Sir Arthur Tedder (RAF), MAAF is comprised of all Allied air elements (RAF, USAAF, French, and other) which are operating in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO). These elements previously were part of the Mediterranean Air Command (MAC) and Northwest African Air Force (NAAF), which are disbanded. US Army Air Forces, North African Theater of Operations (USAAFNATO) is established with General Carl Spaatz as commander, to facilitate administration of AAF units of the Twelfth and Fifteenth Air Forces. STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 30+ B-24's bomb a marshalling yard at Sofia, Bulgaria and more than 100 B-17's hit Eleusis Airfield in Greece. Heavy bombers and escorting fighters claim 30+ fighters destroyed in combat; 9 of the escorts are lost. HQ 97th Bombardment Group (Heavy) transfers from Depienne, Tunisia to Cerignola, Italy. HQ 450th Bombardment Group (Heavy) arrives at Manduria, Italy from the U.S. The 345th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 98th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfers from Brindisi to Manuria, Italy with B-24's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, P-40's and RAF, SAAF, and RAAF fighter-bombers blast vehicles and heavily defended areas near Chieti and Orsogna, and hit a fuel dump near Manoppello. A-36's bomb Terracina and hit water towers, a train, and a railway station S of Rome. TUESDAY, 21 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Operations are restricted to weather reconnaissance and to air-sea rescue patrols N of Corfu Island, Greece. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Lieutenant General John K Cannon takes command. In Italy, B-25's bomb Terracina; P-40's hit the same target and also bomb positions and munitions factory S of Sant' Elia Fiumerapido; A-36's bomb positions, a fuel dump, and munitions factory in the Cervaro area, and hit trains, a seaplane base, a radar station, trucks, and other targets in the Rome-Civitavecchia area. WEDNESDAY, 22 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Operations are again limited to weather reconnaissance. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Major General Paul L Williams reassumes command of the XII Troop Carrier Command (Provisional). In Italy, P-40's and Spitfires of the Twelfth Air Force, RAF, SAAF, and RAAF hit strong points in the Tollo-Miglianico-Chieti areas; P-40's blast bridge, locomotives, trucks, and railroad tracks at and near Tortoreto and Benedello; P-47's strafe targets of opportunity in the area around Zara, Yugoslavia. THURSDAY, 23 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-26's hit the viaduct at Antheor, France and railroad bridge and marshalling yard at Imperia, Italy. The Ventimiglia, Italy railroad bridge is attacked; the bridge is not hit but the overpass, tunnel, tracks. and transformer station nearby are damaged. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): P-40's and P-47's attempt to support Yugoslav partisans resisting the German invasion of Korcula Island off the Peljesac Peninsula, but bad weather prevents location of targets. FRIDAY, 24 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, 100+ B-26's dispatched to bomb the Pisa, Italy marshalling yard fail to locate the target due to overcast. 24 B-26's bomb the marshalling yard at Cecina. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Weather severely hampers operations. P-40's fail to locate the target, a vessel at Ugljan Island, Yugoslavia, but shoot down 1 airplane in the Adriatic Sea. SATURDAY, 25 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-26's pound the Pisa-Porta Nuova area, scoring especially damaging hits in the marshalling yards. B-17's hit the Bolzano marshalling yard; and B-24's hit the Pordenone marshalling yard and targets of opportunity at Vicenza. B-17's of 2 groups fail to locate targets due to bad weather, and many fighters ticketed for escort duty fail to rendezvous with heavy bombers in the overcast skies. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): A-36's bomb road, trucks, and the town area at Pontecorvo, Italy. P-40's, with a few SAAF Spitfires, hit a motor launch in Peljesac Channel of Yugoslavia. SUNDAY, 26 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-26's bomb marshalling yards at Prato, Empoli, and Pistoia, Italy. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Weather limits operations to uneventful reconnaissance flights. The 415th Night Fighter Squadron, 64th Fighter Wing, transfers from Cantania, Sicily to Montecorvino, Italy with Beaufighters. A detachment is operating from Gaudo Airfield, Italy. MONDAY, 27 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-26's hit viaducts at Zoagli and Recco and attack, but fail to hit, the marshalling yard at Poggibonsi. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): B-25's attack a vessel near Zara, Yugoslavia. A-36's attack targets in Italy, hitting a factory and railroad at Anagni, harbor and railroad facilities at Civitavecchia, a bridge at Pontecorvo, and several gun positions and vehicles. A detachment of the 416th Night Fighter Squadron, Twelfth Air Force, based at Grottaglie, Italy with Beaufighters begins operating at Rerhaia, Algeria. TUESDAY, 28 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, 100+ B-26's hit Guidonia and Centocelle Airfields and railroad bridges N and S of Orvieto; a like number of B-17's and B-24's bomb the Rimini marshalling yard and on the return flight, hit a bridge over the Foglia River at Pesaro and road- railway intersection S of town; 17 B-24's dispatched to hit the Vicenza the marshalling yard are attacked by about 50 fighters before reaching the target; 10 of the unescorted B-24's are lost; several B-24's salvo their bombs over the target area and, in the fierce battle, claim 18 fighters shot down. The 15th Photographic Squadron (Heavy), 3d Photographic Group (Reconnaissance) transfers from Grottaglie to Bari, Italy with B-17's, B-25's and F-5's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): B-25's, A-20's, and A-36's, in coordination with Mediterranean Allied Strategic Air Force (MASAF) heavy and medium bombers operating against targets in the Rome area, bomb landing grounds at Ciampino, a bridge at Roccasecca and a road and railway to the E of town, ships and harbor at Civitavecchia, and railway sidings W of Frosinone; and P-40's hit the harbor at Anzio and communications in the Pontecorvo and Atina areas. The 486th and 487th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium), 340th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfer from Foggia to Pompeii, Italy with B-25's. WEDNESDAY, 29 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-26's attack the marshalling yard and bridge at Certaldo, the marshalling yards at Poggibonsi and the viaduct at Bucine, and a bridge in the NW part of Orvieto; B-17's blast marshalling yards at Ferrara and Rimini. HQ 304th and 305th Bombardment Wings (Heavy) are activated at Cerignola and Foggia, Italy respectively. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): P-40's hit a vessel on the N side of the Peljesac Peninsula in Yugoslavia and a railway station at Anagni, Italy. In Italy, A-36's attack the railway station at Ferentino, harbor and railroad yard at Civitavecchia, and truck park near Aquino. THURSDAY, 30 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-17's bomb the marshalling yards at Rimini and Padua; 2 B-17's are lost on the the Rimini mission; The B-17's and escorting P-38's and P-47's claim the destruction of 9 fighters during air battles in the Padua-Vicenza area, off the coast E of Ravenna, and S of Aquila; B-26's hit the Borgo San Lorenzo marshalling yard and viaduct, the marshalling yard at Viareggio, and a road junction near Roccasecca. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): B-25's bomb Zara, Yugoslavia, hitting a junction, railway station, repair shops, warehouse, and harbor. In Italy, A-20's hit Atina; P-40's and A-36's support ground forces, hitting targets in the Chieti-Miglianico area; vessels are hit at Crkvice, Yugoslavia, railway sidings near Frosinone, gun positions near Arce and W of Minturno, and the town areas of Sant' Elia Fiumerapido, Ferentino, and Atina are bombed. FRIDAY, 31 DECEMBER 1943 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): The 154th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, 68th Tactical Reconnaissance Group, is attached to the Fifteenth Air Force for the purpose of flying weather reconnaissance, a duty presently being handled by a P-38 unit called the Fifteenth Air Force Weather Reconnaissance Detachment (and by some B-26's of 3 medium bomber groups which are transferred to the Twelfth Air Force after this date). Personnel and equipment of the 154th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron and the Weather Reconnaissance Detachment are subsequently integrated, and the unit is redesignated the 154th Weather Reconnaissance Squadron (Medium) on 12 May 44. Operations are limited to weather reconnaissance. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, P-40's and Spitfires of the AAF, RAF, RAAF, and SAAF, strike infantry and heavy artillery around Tollo, Orsogna, Miglianico, Ripa, and Teatina in support of the British Eighth Army. A-36's bomb the town of Formia and hit gun positions.
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