COMBAT CHRONOLOGY
US ARMY AIR FORCES
MEDITERRANEAN - 1944, PART 1


JANUARY 1944 - MEDITERRANEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS (MTO)

SATURDAY, 1 JANUARY 1944 ARMY AIR FORCES, MEDITERRANEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS (AAFMTO): A complete reorganization of USAAF units in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO) takes place: US Army Air Forces, North African Theater of Operations (USAAFNATO) is redesignated AAF Mediterranean Theater of Operations (AAFMTO); XII Air Force Services Command becomes AAF Services Command Mediterranean Theater of Operations (AAFSCMTO); III Air Services Area Command (Special) becomes XII Air Force Services Command; II Air Services Area Command becomes XV Air Force Services Command; XII Air Force Engineer Command (Provisional) becomes AAF Engineer Command, Mediterranean Theather of Operations (Provisional); and XII Air Force Training Command is changed to XII Air Force Training and Replacement Command. The XII Bomber Command, Twelfth Air Force is reorganized as an medium bomber organization, 3 B-25 groups and the 3 B-26 groups of the 42d Bombardment Wing (Medium), under Brigadier General Robert D Knapp. STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): The 3 remaining B-26 groups of the Fifteenth Air Force are transferred to the Twelfth Air Force, leaving the Fifteenth with 6 heavy bomber [2d, 93d, 97th, 99th, 30lst, 376th Bombardment Groups (Heavy)] and 4 fighter groups (1st, 14th, 82d, and 325th), or 4 B-17, 2 B-24, 1 P-47, and 3 P-38 groups. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): HQ 33d Fighter Group transfers from Santa Maria to Cercola, Italy. SUNDAY, 2 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): P-47's fly an uneventful sweep over the Rome area. The 720th and 722d Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 450th Bombardment Group (Heavy), arrive at Manduria, Italy from the US with B-24's; they will fly their first mission on 9 Jan. The 724th, 725th, 726th and 727th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 451st Bombardment Group (Heavy), arrive at Gioia del Colle, Italy from the US with B-24's; they will fly their first mission on 30 Jan. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's bomb the Terni marshalling yard and iron works and nearby barracks; P-40's and Spitfires from the AAF, Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF), Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), South African Air Force (SAAF), and Royal Air Force (RAF) blast snowbound vehicles in the Aveziano-Popoli area, warehouses at San Benedetto de Marsi and gun positions and defended areas around Chieti; A-36's hit Civitavecchia harbor and marhalling yard to the S of town, the Anagni marshalling yard and nearby pun positions, and other targets of opportunity; B-26's bomb bridges at Riva Santo Stefano and Ventimiglia, the marshalling yard at Arma di Taggia, and bridge over the Var River. HQ 340th Bombardment Group (Medium) and it's 488th Bombardment Squadron (Medium) transfer from Foggia to Pompeii, Italy with B-25's. MONDAY, 3 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Lieutenant General Nathan F Twining becomes Commanding General, Fifteenth Air Force. In Italy, B-17's escorted by P-38's, bomb the Villarperosa ball bearing works and Lingotto marshalling yard and Fiat motor works in the Turin area. P-47's fly top cover for the B-17's as far as the Italian coast, then turn and carry out an uneventful sweep over the Rome area. Arrivals in Italy from US: 719th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 449th Bombardment Group (Heavy), to Grottaglie with B-24's; first mission is 8 Jan. 721st and 723d Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 450th Bombardment Group (Heavy), to Manduria with B-24's; first mission is 8 Jan. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Brigadier General Edward M Morris assumes command of the XII Fighter Command. In Yugoslavia, B-25's bomb a troop concentration area at Prijedor, and hit Split and Sibenik. In Italy, P-40's and A-36's bomb gun positions near Cassino, the Anagni railroad station, a village near Vicenza, the railway and trains between Ceccano and Segni, and the harbor at Civitavecchia; P-40's, with SAAF and RCAF Spitfires, hit 100+ vehicles in the Avezzano-Sulmona area; other P-40's, with AAF, RAF, SAAF, and RAAF fighters, hit targets in the Filetto-Tollo areas in support of ground troops. TUESDAY, 4 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 100+ B-17's are dispatched to bomb the Dupnica area of Bulgaria; 29 bomb the target area, but heavy cloud cover causes 77 B-17's to return bombs to base; P-38's escort the B-17's the total distance to and from targets; P-47's provide escort part way. HQ 449th Bombardment Group (Heavy) arrives at Grottaglie, Italy from the US. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Yugoslavia, B-25's bomb the Brodac town area and marshalling yard, and the town of Travnik. P-40's hit a bridge and trains and fly patrols over the battleline in Italy. Transfers in Italy: HQ XII Bomber Command and HQ 57th Bombardment Wing from Bari and Foggia respectively to Trocchia. HQ 3d Photographic Group (Reconnaissance) and 12th Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron from San Severo to Pomigliano with F-4's and F-5's. 380th and 428th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium), 310th Bombardment Group (Medium), from Philippeville, Algeria to Ghisonaccia, Corsica with B-25's. WEDNESDAY, 5 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Transfers: 154th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, 68th Tactical Reconnaissance Group (attached to Fifteenth Air Force), from Nouvion to Oran, Algeria with P-38's. 717th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 449th Bombardment Group (Heavy), from US to Grottaglie, Italy with B-24's; first mission is 8 Jan. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, A-36's hit gun positions N of Mignano and on the S slope of Monte Porchia. Weather cancels other operations. 489th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 340th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfers from Foggia to Pompeii, Italy with B-25's. THURSDAY, 6 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Control of Fifteenth Air Force operations against targets of the Combined Bomber Offensive (CBO) is placed under USSAFE. 718th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 449th Bombardment Group (Heavy), arrives at Grottaglie, Italy from the US with B-24's; first mission is 8 Jan. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26's bomb Pontedera hitting the marshalling yard and Piaggio aircraft factory there, the Lucca marshalling yard, and the railway N of Follonica; P-40 and A-36 fighter- bombers attack gun positions in the Cervaro-Monte Trocchio area and near Aquino, the town of Cervaro, the railway at Civitavecchia, trains N and E of Rome, the Velletri train station, and the town of Fondi. FRIDAY, 7 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-17's, with P-38 escort, bomb an aircraft factory at Maribor and a torpedo factory at Fiume; the P-38's battle a superior number of enemy fighters over the Maribor area; 3 P-38's are lost and several are missing; 4 fighters are claimed destroyed, with 1 probably downed and 4 damaged, during the fierce half-hour fight. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's strike Perugia Airfield; A-20's hit defenses in close support of the US Fifth Army; B-26's hit the marshalling yards at Foligno and Arezzo and attack a bridge at Roccasecca; A-36's hit gun positions, trucks, and trains in the Cervaro- Aquino-Cassino area, bomb the Aquino station, and hit the Velletri railway yards; P-40's give close support in the Monte Maio, Monte La Chiaia, Monte Porchia, and Cedro Hill areas as the US Fifth Army drives toward the Rapido River. Air echelon of the 417th Night Fighter Squadron, Twelfth Air Force, transfers from Tafaraoui to La Senia, Algeria with Beaufighters; ground echelon is at Ghisonaccia, Corsica. SATURDAY, 8 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 449th and and 450th Bombardment Groups (Heavy) with B-24's become operational, giving the Fifteenth a total of 8 heavy bomber groups. B-24's bomb the airfield at Mostar, Yugoslavia. B-17's hit the Reggio Emilia aircraft factory; P-38's and P-47's fly escort. HQ 1st Fighter Group and 27th and 94th Fighter Squadrons transfer from Gioia del Colle to Salsola Airfield, Italy with P-38's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): B-25's bomb the harbor, warehouses, and railway at Metkovic, Yugoslavia. In Italy, A-20's hit railway stations at Frosinone and in the Colleferro-Segni area; B-26's bomb marshalling yards at Grosseto and Lucca; P-40's support the US Fifth Army in the mountains E and SE of Cassino, and, with A-36's, hit railway targets S of Rome at Aquino, Frosinone, Palestrina and Castelforte; other P-40's hit Avezzano, and A-36's blast trains and vessels in the vicinity of Tarquinia. SUNDAY, 9 JANUARY 1944 MEDITERRANEAN: Prime Minister Winston S Churchill and General Charles A De Gaulle meet at Marrakesh, French Morocco. They discuss cooperation of a French expeditionary force in invasion of Europe and the degree of authority of the French inside France after the invasion. STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-17's hit the docks and shipping at Pola, Yugoslavia. 71st Fighter Squadron, 1st Fighter Group, transfers from Gioia del Colle to Salsola Airfield, Italy with P-38's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's attack the marshalling yard and docks at Ancona; P-40's hit tanks and trucks at Palena and S of Sulmona, and positions and vehicles near Cervaro; and A-36's hit positions in the same area. 414th Night Fighter Squadron, 63d Fighter Wing, based at Elmas, Sardinia with Beaufighters, sends a detachment to operate from Ghisonaccia, Corsica. MONDAY, 10 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-17's bomb Sofia, Bulgaria causing considerable damage in the marshalling yards. B-24's hit the marshalling yard at Skoplje, Yugoslavia. P-38's and P-47's provide escort. Around 60 Luftwaffe fighters attack the Sofia force and a fierce air battle ensues; 2 B-17's are lost; they claim 28 aircraft shot down. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's hit San Benedetto de Marsi; P-40's, with RAF, SAAF, and RAAF airplanes, hit communications, gun positions, trucks, and tanks at numerous points in and NW of the battle area; other P-40's give close support to ground forces in the Chieti area; and A-36's hit trucks, tanks, trains, and other targets of opportunity N of Rome. Transfers: HQ 47th Bombardment Group (Light) from Vincenzo Airfield to Vesuvius Airfield, Italy. Air echelon of the 417th Night Fighter Squadron, Twelfth Air Force (attached to RAF 337 Wing) from Tafaraoui to La Senia, Algeria with Beaufighters; ground echelon is at Ghisonaccia, Corsica. TUESDAY, 11 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-17's, with P-38 escort, bomb the harbor at Piraeus, Greece; they destroy 8 attacking fighters; 6 B-17's are lost in midair collisions in the heavy overcast. Transfers in Italy: HQ 82d Fighter Group and 95th, 96th and 97th Fighter Squadrons from Lecce to Vincenzo Airfield with P-38's. HQ 456th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and 744th, 745th, 746th and 747th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy) to Cerignola from the US with B-24's; first mission is 10 Feb. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26's attack the iron and steel works at Piombino during the night of 10/11 Jan; during the day, B-25's bomb Falconara (hitting the railroad junction) and railroad yards at Fabriano; P-40's and A-36's blast defenses and gun positions in Cervaro-Monte Trocchio, a gun position N of Minturno, the towns of Sora and Isola del Liri, road traffic in the Macerata-Aquila-Popoli area, and railroad facilities at San Giorgio del Sannio. Transfers: HQ 87th Fighter Wing to Nouvion, Algeria from the US. 84th and 85th Bombardment Squadrons (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light), from Vincenzo Airfield to Vesuvius Airfield, Italy with A-20's. WEDNESDAY, 12 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, P-47's fly a fighter sweep in the Rome area, strafing the marshalling yard at Teramo and buildings between the Tronto and Tesino Rivers. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Colonel Archibald Y Smith assumes command of the XII Air Force Training and Replacement Command. In Italy, B-25's and B-26's bomb the Giulianova railway bridge and attack a dam and road bridge; A-20's hit San Donato; P-40's attack a vessel in the Krka River of Yugoslavia, hit enemy defensive positions at San Biagio Saracinesa, Sant' Elia Fiumerapido, Monte Trocchio, and Atina, and bomb Vallerotonda; A-36's attack the Avezzano railroad yards, a village near Atina, railroad facilities at Cisterna di Latina, and numerous trucks and train cars in the Rome area. THURSDAY, 13 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-17's bomb Centocelle and Guidonia airfields and B-24's hit Perugia airfield. P-38's provide escort, and P-47's fly top cover for the B-17 missions. The heavy bombers destroy several fighters in aerial combat. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's and B-26's bomb Guidonia, Centocelle, and Ciampino airfields; A-20's strike the town of Atina. AAF, RAF, SAAF, and RAAF fighter-bombers hit shipping along the Dalmatian coast at Sibenik and in the Krka River of Yugoslavia. A-36's hit the town and railway yards at Isola del Liri, a factory at Colleferro, docks at Formia, railroad yards at Valmontone, and a railway station SE of Frosinone. P-40's hit Sant' Elia Fiumerapido, San Biagio, Saracinesa, and a rail and road junction near Villa Latina. 86th and 97th Bombardment Squadrons (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light), transfer from Vincenzo Airfield to Vesuvius Airfield, Italy with A-20's. FRIDAY, 14 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Around 200 B-24's and B-17's attack the town area and airfield at Mostar, Yugoslavia. P-38's provide escort throughout the missions, and P-47's join the B-17's at the target and cover the flight back to base. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's strike the Pontecorvo bridge; A-20's offer close support to US Fifth Army forces in the Monte Trocchio area; P-40's blast Loreto tank repair shops; P-40's and A-36's hit defenses in the San Giuseppe, Sant' Elia Fiumerapido. and Monte Trocchio areas; A-36's also attack road and buildings E of Minturno, the town of Isola del Liri, and the harbor at Anzio. Transfers in Italy: HQ 321st Bombardment Group (Medium) and 445th, 446th, 447th and 448th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium) from Amendola to Vincenzo Airfield with B-25's and 308th Fighter Squadron, 31st Fighter Group, from Pomigliano to Castel Volturno with P-51's. SATURDAY, 15 JANUARY 1944 MEDITERRANEAN ALLIED AIR FORCE (MAAF): Lieutenant General Ira C Eaker, USAAF, assumes command of MAAF and Army Air Forces, MTO (AAFMTO), replacing Air Chief Marshall Sir Arthur Tedder, RAF, and General Carl Spaatz, who along with Air Vice Marshall Sir Arthur Coningham, RAF, and numerous other American and British officers have departed for the UK. STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-24's bomb the Prato marshalling yard and industrial area, and also hit roads in the area and drop several bombs on the town of Pistoia. B-17's concentrate on railroad yards and bridges in the Florence area at Certaldo, Poggibonsi, Montalto di Castro, Arezzo, Civitavecchia, and near Porto Civitanova and Orvieto, and hit scattered targets of opportunity. Fighters escort all the missions. HQ 306th and 307th Bombardment Wings (Heavy) are activated at Bari, Italy. HQ 455th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and 740th, 741st, 742d and 743d Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy) arrive at San Giovanni, Italy from the US with B-24's; first mission is 12 Feb. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's attack the Foligno railway junction; B-26's bomb bridges at Orvieto. P-40's of the 79th Fighter Group and RAF 239 Wing hit the San Valentino station in a joint attack; A-36's and other P-40's, in support of US Fifth Army forces, hit gun positions and strongpoints, especially at Picinisco and Atina; P-40's on armed reconnaissance hit the railroad W of Frosinone station and strafe the Ceccano station and railway cars. SUNDAY, 16 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-24's attack the Osoppo, Italy landing ground and the town of Zara, Yugoslavia; they claim 9 Luftwaffe aircraft; 1 B-24 is lost. B-17's bomb the Messerschmitt factory at Klagenfurt, Austria and the landing ground at Villaorba, Italy. Escorting P-38's claim 9 Luftwaffe aircraft; 3 P-38's are lost. Transfers in Italy: HQ 97th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and 342d Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) from Cerignola to Amendola with B-17's; HQ 454th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and 736th and 737th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy) to San Giovanni from the US with B-24's, first mission is 8 Feb; and 154th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, 68th Tactical Reconnaissance Group (attached to Fifteenth Air Force), begins a movement from Oran, Algeria to Bari, Italy with P-38's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's bomb the marshalling yard and choke points at Terni; B-26's attack the marshalling yard and bridge at Orte; A-20's bomb the town of Atina; P-40's attack bridges in the San Giorgio del Sannio area and gun emplacements near Cassino; Sant' Angelo in Theodice and Picinisco; A-36's hit the railway junction at Cecina, road and railway S of Siena, and the town areas of Avezzano and Formia. Transfers in Italy: HQ 79th Fighter Group and 85th and 86th Fighter Squadrons from Madna Airfield to Capodichino with P-40's; and 99th Fighter Squadron, XII Air Support Command (attached to 79th Fighter Group), from Madna Airfield to Capodichino with P-40's. MONDAY, 17 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-17's attack the marshalling yard at Prato and the marshalling yard and bridge at Pontassieve; B-24's bomb the marshalling yard at Arezzo; and P-38's and P-47's provide escort. Transfers in Italy: HQ 98th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and 343d Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) from Manduria to Lecce with B-24's; 340th, 341st and 414th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 97th Bombardment Group (Heavy), from Cerignola to Amendola with B-17's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's attack marshalling yards at Terni, Chiaravalle, and Montemarciano; B-26's strike the Orte railway bridge and Viterbo marshalling yard; P-40's hit the Sibenik, Yugoslavia harbor, the bridge at San Giorgio del Sannio, gun positions at San Giuseppe and Formia and docks at Anzio; A-36's bomb Anzio, the Avezzano town area and road junction, and Tarquinia town and factory buildings. Transfers in Italy: 87th Fighter Squadron, 79th Fighter Group, from Madna Airfield to Capodichino with P-40's; 92d Fighter Squadron, 81st Fighter Group, from Castelvetrano, Sicily to Capodichino with P-39's. TUESDAY, 18 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-17's attack marshalling yards, a bridge and an airfield in the Florence, Italy area; P-38's and P-47's provide close escort. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26's hit the harbor, tin mills, steel works, power house, and blast furnaces at Piombino, and bomb the Montalto di Castro railroad and bridge; B-25's hit the town and railway viaduct at Terni, and A-20's blast gun positions in the Minturno area; P-40's hit trains, wharves and vessels in the Ploca and Metkovic, Yugoslavia areas; A-36's and P-40's pound troops, trucks, and gun positions in the Minturno area and near Pontecorvo and Atina, hit a gasoline dump at Pignataro Interamna, a warehouse at Fontana Liri, a factory at Ceprano, the rail and road junction at Avezzano, and railway at Santa Marinella. Transfers in Italy: 81st and 434th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium), 12th Bombardment Group (Medium), from Foggia to Gaudo Airfield with B-25's; 307th Fighter Squadron, 31st Fighter Group, from Pomigliano to Castel Volturno with P-51's; 344th, 345th and 415th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 98th Bombardment Group (Heavy), from Manduria to Lecce with B-24's. WEDNESDAY, 19 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-24's and B-17's hit airfields at Perugia, Iesi, Centocelle, and Ciampino; P-38's fly close escort for all the missons while P-47's fly top cover over Ciampino and Centocelle and carry out a sweep over the Rome area. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's bomb Rieti Airfield; B-26's hit the airfield at Viterbo; A-20's attack the marshalling yard at Colleferro; P-40's bomb and strafe 2 schooners at Makarska, Yugoslavia; A-36's hit guns, trucks, and trains N of Rome and fly 70+ sorties against rail, communications and troop positions in the US Fifth Army battle area as the Garigliano bridgehead expands; P-40's also hit defended positions in the battle area and near Scauri, Tremensuoli, and Alvito. Transfers in Italy: HQ 12th Bombardment Group (Medium) and 82d and 83d Bombardment Squadrons (Medium) from Foggia to Gaudo Airfield with B-25's; HQ 27th Fighter-Bomber Group and 522d, 523d and 524th Fighter-Bomber Squadrons from Paestum to Pomigliano with A-36's; HQ 31st Fighter Group and 309th Fighter Squadron from Pomigliano to Castel Volturno with P-51's. THURSDAY, 20 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-24's and B-17's bomb airfields at Guidonia, Centocelle, and Ciampino; P-38's provide escort and P-47's carry out sweeps over the targets. Other P-47's escort transport airplanes on a mission to Yugoslavia. HQ 451st Bombardment Group (Heavy) transfers from the US to Gioia del Colle, Italy. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26's bomb the Viterbo marshalling yard and attack a bridge at Pontecorvo; B-25's attack railroads in the Carsoli area; A-20's give close support to the US 5th Infantry Division in the Minturno area; British and US P-40's follow RAF light bombers in a raid on the Popoli station; A-36's pound a rail and road crossing at Viterbo. and P-40's hit communications at Frosinone, Palestrina, and Carsoli, where a traffic block is created; A-36's and P-40's fly nearly 200 sorties in support of the US Fifth Army ground forces as the 36th Infantry Division begins an assault across the Rapido River in the Theodice area; and P-40's hit targets along the British Eighth Army front. FRIDAY, 21 JANUARY STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-17's bomb airfields at Istres- Le-Tube and Salon-de-Provence, France, and in Italy, railroad bridges at Porto Civitanova, and a bridge and marshalling yard at Rimini, Italy; B-24's attack the marshalling yards at Pontedera and Prato; P-38's fly escort; and P-47's sweep over wide areas around Rome and Florence. 738th and 739th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 454th Bombardment Group (Heavy) arrives at San Giovanni, Italy from the US with B-24's; first mission is 8 Feb. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26's hit railroad bridges N and S of Orvieto; B-25's bomb chokepoints around Rome and unsuccessfully attack the Pontecorvo bridge; A-20's attack communications at Atina; P-40's hit shipping at Povlje, Yugoslavia; other P-40's and A-36's attack strongpoints, trucks, a command post, a HQ building, and radar station in the battle area; P-40's also give close support to US Fifth Army troops which are hardpressed at both Garigliano and the Rapido River bridgeheads; and A-36's bomb Veletri, a concentration at Minturno, and the area S of Viterbo. "B" and "C" Flights of the 15th Combat Mapping Squadron, 5th Photographic Reconnaissance Group, depart Colorado Springs, Colorado to join "A" Flight. The 15th, based at Bari, Italy with F-5's and B-25's, has been in the MTO since Dec 42. 381st Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 310th Bombardment Group (Medium), transfers from Philippeville, Algeria to Ghisonaccia, Corsica with B-25's. SATURDAY, 22 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, unescorted B-17's and B-24's bomb the Terni and Arezzo marshalling yards, Pontedera marshalling yard and airfield, a road and rail junction NW of Frascati, Terracina road defile and Pontecorvo bridge and town area; P-38's strafe targets in the Arce-Frosinone area, including several vehicles and train cars; P-47's on a sweep over the Rome area encounter several fighters, and claim 5 shot down; 2 P-47's are lost. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, maximum support is given to Allied landings at Anzio, which are begun by the US Fifth Army's VI Corps at 0200; fighter-bombers, light and medium bombers direct efforts toward isolating the landing area by cutting roads, bridges, and railroads and obstructing towns in the surrounding region, at Valetri, Valmontone, Colleferro, Ceprano, and Fondi and hitting traffic and communications throughout the area; fighters maintain a patrol over shipping and beachhead and successfully intercept several enemy fighter-bomber missions directed against the landings. SUNDAY, 23 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-17's bomb road bridges at Pontecorvo and Ceprano, railroad line and bridge at Falconara, Marittima, and marshalling yards at Poggibonsi and Siena; P-47's escort the B-17's to the latter 2 targets; B-24's bomb Rieti Airfield, Porto Civitanova marshalling yard, and targets of opportunity, including a bridge near Cagli, marshalling yard N of Perugia, and landing strip S of Iesi; P-47's and P-38's carry out sweeps in wide areas around Rome and Florence, reaching out to Viterbo, Rieti, Orte, and Terni. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Colonel William S Gravely takes command of XII Air Force Training and Replacement Command. B-26's bomb the area S of Avezzano while B-25's hit the town of Avezzano and road junction at Monte Cornacchia; A-20's bomb Vallecorsa with good results; A-36's attack Vallecorsa, road junctions at Fondi and in the Priverno area, the town of Ceccano, and railroad at Sezze; P-47's bomb the bridge at Skradin, Yugoslavia; RAF Desert Air Force (DAF) fighters strafe tanks and trucks on the British Eighth Army front, and XII Air Support Command fighters cover the US Fifth Army's Anzio beachhead during the day. MONDAY, 24 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-24's bomb the airfield and town area at Skoplje, Yugoslavia. In Bulgaria, B-17's hit the marshalling yard at Vrattsa and the Dolno Tserovene area, both targets of opportunity. P-38's escort the B-24's while P-47's accompany the B-17's. 736th and 737th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 454th Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfer from Torretto to San Giovanni, Italy with B-24's; first mission is 8 Feb. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Weather cancels all medium and light bomber operations. In Italy, fighters maintain cover over the Anzio beachhead (Anzio and Nettuno are captured during the day) and encounter increased air attacks; 3 fighters are claimed destroyed in aerial combat, while 1 Allied fighter is lost. P-40 fighter-bombers hit road at Penne, while A-36's bomb Velletri and the road junction E of town, and hit other communications targets. TUESDAY, 25 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-17's bomb targets of opportunity (highways and railroad bridges) at Pedaso, SE of Pedaso, at Stazione di Monte Silvano and on the Vomano River NW of Pescara; other B-17's return bombs to base after finding targets obscured by bad weather. HQ 456th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and 745th, 746th and 747th transfer from Cerignola to Stornara, Italy with B-24's; first mission is 10 Feb. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's bomb Valmontone; B-26's hit the Sezze marshalling yard, the Sezze-Bassiano road, Amelia, and Rieti marshalling yard; A-20's attack Terelle; A-36's hit Civita Castellana, Itri, Velletri, and railroad rolling stock in the area; P-40's hit Velletri and Belmonte in Sabina and strafe trucks E of Fondi; P-40's and P-47's hit shipping in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, and nearby road and rail traffic. British fighters of the RAF DAF hit bridge approaches at Popoli, near the British Eighth Army front. Detachment of the 416th Night Fighter Squadron, Twelfth Air Force (attached to RAF No. 286 Wing) at Rerhaia, Algeria returns to base at Grottaglie, Italy with Beaufighters. WEDNESDAY, 26 JANUARY 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, A-20's attack Cisterna di Latina, toward which the US Fifth Army's VI Corps is moving; A-36's and P-40's fly harassing attacks against roads and railroads, bombing at Belmonte in Sabina, Cisterna, Itri, Ceccano, Frosinone, Poggio Mirteto and at points around these towns; A-36's destroy a fuel dump and several trucks and artillery caissons in the Ceprano-Priverno area. THURSDAY, 27 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In France, B-17's bomb airfields at Salon-de-Provence and Montpellier-Frejorgues; B-24's hit Istres- Le-Tube Airfield; P-38's fly escort. In Italy, other P-38's sweep the Rome area, and P-47's sweep the Florence area. The heavy bombers and fighter escorts claim 20+ aircraft shot down. Transfers in Italy: HQ 306th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) from Bari to Foggia; 744th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 456th Bombardment Group (Heavy), from Cerignola to Stornara with B-24's. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's attack roads at Velletri, the railway at Colleferro and marshalling yard at Orte; B-26's bomb bridges at Ceprano and marshalling yard at Terni; A-20's give close support to the US Fifth Army attack near Terelle; A-36's bomb railways and buildings at Poggio Mirteto, Ceccano, and Ciampino, hit rail and road traffic S of Rome, and, with P-40's, hit the town of Piedimonte; 70+ P-40's provide close support to Fifth Army forces in Cisterna di Latina and Atina, bombing gun positions; Allied fighters over the Anzio beachhead successfully meet increased enemy air effort, claiming 28 aircraft downed in aerial combat. FRIDAY, 28 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-17's, with fighter escorts, bomb Aviano Airfield and Verona marshalling yard; B-24's hit the marshalling yard at Ferrara. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's attack the Orte marshalling yard; B-26's hit bridges at Orvieto and Montalto di Castro; A-20's bomb Cisterna di Latina with good results; P-40's and P-47's bomb the Popoli road junction, and A-36's hit railroad, road, and gun positions in the Cassino-Vicenza-Velletri areas, the Colleferro marshalling yard, and Atina town area; P-40's hit Terelle, Belmonte in Sabina, and Cisterna; Allied fighters over the Anzio area claim 21 aircraft shot down. 416th Night Fighter Squadron, 62d Fighter Wing, transfers from Grottaglie to Pomigliano, Italy with Beaufighters. SATURDAY, 29 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-24's bomb the Siena marshalling yard through overcast; B-17's bomb marshalling yards at Ancona, Fabriano, Rimini, and Bologna; P-47's sweep over the Rome and Florence areas. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's bomb San Benedetto de Marsi marshalling yard; B-26's hit bridges N of Rome; P-47's bomb a munitions factory at Bussi sul Tirino; P-40's and A-36's, in support of US Fifth Army forces, bomb positions in the Anzio beachhead area and hit enemy forward road and rail communications; fighters on patrol over Anzio meet little air opposition. SUNDAY, 30 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): The 451st Bombardment Group (Heavy) with B-24's, becomes operational, making a total of 9 heavy bomber operational. In Italy, B-17's hit airfields and landing grounds at Villaorba, Maniago and Lavariano; B-24's bomb Udine Airfield and Fier radar station; P-38's escort the B-17's on the Villaorba and Maniago missions and P-38's and some RAF Spitfires escort the B-24's on the Udine mission; P-47's carry out a sweep over the Villaorba area; the B-24's and fighters claim 60+ aircraft shot down and a larger number destroyed on the ground. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25's hit road junctions at Valmontone and Genzano di Roma, and bomb the town of Monte Compatri; weather cancels all B-26 operations and several B-25 missions. A-20's hit the town of and road junction near Cori, and XII Air Support Command fighter-bombers hit Sora; US and RAF fighters hit barges and fishing boats off Zara and Trojica, Yugoslavia; fighters on patrol over Anzio meet no air opposition. 415th Night Fighter Squadron, 64th Fighter Wing, transfers from Montecorvino to Marcianise, Italy with Beaufighters. The detachment operating from Gaudo Airfield also transfers. MONDAY, 31 JANUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-17's and B-24's bomb airfields at Aviano and Udine, Italy; P-38's and P-47's provide escort. B-17's with P-38 escort, hit Klagenfurt Airfield, Austria; they claim 16 aircraft shot down. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, A-20's bomb Artena and road junction N of town; P-40's and A-36's, operating E of the Anzio battle area, hit a road junction at Sezze, the town of Fondi, and junction and town area at Priverno; P-47's bomb San Benedetto de Marsi; the XII Air Support Command flies 250+ sorties over the Anzio beachhead; air opposition is absent.

FEBRUARY 1944 - MEDITERRANEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS (MTO)

MONDAY, 1 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Operations are limited to a fighter sweep of the Orvieto-Viterbo, Italy area by P-47s and to photo and weather reconnaissance. HQ 301st Bombardment Group (Heavy) transfers from Cerignola to Lucera, Italy. Transfers in Italy during Feb 44: HQ 305th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) from Foggia to Spinazzola. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s bomb the Albano Laziale road junction; P-40s bomb Cori, while A-36s hit Poggio Mieteto and P-47s attack the station at San Valentino; fighters cover the Anzio battle area. Detachment of 91st Fighter Squadron, 81st Fighter Group, operating from Capodichino, Italy with P-39s, returns to base at Montecorvino Airfield. During Feb 44, HQ 81st Fighter Group and 93d Fighter Squadron transfer from Castelvetrano, Sicily to Montecorvino Airfield with P-39s. During Feb, ground echelon of 417th Night Fighter Squadron, Twelfth Air Force (attached to RAF No. 337 Wing) transfers from Ghisonaccia to Borgo, Corsica; air echelon is at La Senia, Algeria with Beaufighters. WEDNESDAY, 2 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-24s, with Spitfire escort, bomb the radar station at Durazzo, Albania. 32d, 352d, 353d and 419th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 301st Bombardment Group (Heavy), transfer from Cerignola to Lucera, Italy with B-17s. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Major General Gordon P Saville becomes Commanding General, XII Air Support Command. In Italy, B-25s attack the Marino road junction and A-20s bomb Norma; A-36s and P-40s bomb villages, road junctions, trucks, trains, parked aircraft, supply dump, and the Viterbo road during several fighter-bomber missions; P-40s on patrol over the battle areas attack Cisterna di Latina and Formia. 23d Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron, 5th Photographic Reconnaissance Group, transfers from San Servero, Italy to Alghero, Sardinia with F-5s. THURSDAY, 3 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-24s, finding the primary target obscured by bad weather, bomb targets of opportunity (railroad yards and stations) at Stimigliano and Sulmona; other B-24s return to base without bombing; P-47s fly a fighter sweep over the Prato-Pontassieve area. 154th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, 68th Tactical Reconnaissance Group attached to Fifteenth Air Force, arrives at Oran, Algeria from Bari, Italy with P-38s, first mission as a weather reconnaissance unit on 13 Feb. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Medium bomber missions are all aborted. In Italy, A-36s hit roads and other targets S of Rome, destroying or damaging numerous trucks and bombing the towns of Sezze and Fondi as US ground forces meet strong resistance in their drive toward Cassino; P-47s hit Manopello and railroad facilities at Sulmona; and fighters patrol the Anzio area. HQ 332d Fighter Group and 100th Fighter Squadron arrive at Montecorvino, Italy from the US with P-39s, first mission on 19 Feb. FRIDAY, 4 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In France, B-17s bomb Antheor viaduct and Toulon harbor; B-24s are forced by bad weather to return bombs to base; many of the B-17s returning from the Toulon raid are forced to land at various friendly fields because of unsafe flying conditions. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, weather prevents all medium, light and fighter-bomber missions; P-40s and Spitfires maintain patrols over the Anzio area, where a strong German counter-offensive had been launched during the night of 3/4 Feb. Detachment of 414th Night Fighter Squadron, 63d Fighter Wing, operating from Ghisonaccia with Beaufighters transfers to Borgo, Corsica; squadron is based at Elmas, Sardinia. SATURDAY, 5 FEBRUARY 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s bomb Terni marshalling yard, and A-20s hit the Lanuvio and Piedimonte areas. P-40s and A-36s hit road junctions at Cisterna di Latina, Vetralla, and Velletri, bomb the towns of Vetralla, Ardea, and Villa Santa Lucia degli Abruzzi, and attack motor transport at several points, including areas N, NE and SE of Rome. 58th, 59th and 60th Fighter Squadrons, 33d Fighter Group, begin a movement from Cercola, Italy to India with P-40s. SUNDAY, 6 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Bad weather restricts operations to photographic and weather reconnaissance flights. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26s bomb the Orte marshalling yard while B-25s hit the Frascati road junction; A-20s bomb the Campoleone railroad station and the town of Roccasecca; P-40s bomb Cisterna di Latina, Santa Lucia (near Campoleone), Cori (and nearby road junction) and Atina; A-36s hit San Stefano al Mare, Cisterna di Latina, Frascati and Albano Laziale, and strike numerous vehicles, railroad cars and other targets of opportunity on armed reconnaissance missions N and S of Rome. A German counteroffensive against the Anzio beachhead and on the Cassino front forces an Allied withdrawal. HQ 12th Bombardment Group (Medium) and 81st, 82d, 83d and 434th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium) begin a movement from Gaudo Airfield, Italy to India with B-25s. HQ 33d Fighter Group begins a movement from Cercola, Italy to India. HQ 350th Fighter Group transfers from Sardinia to Corsica; 345th Fighter Squadron based in Sardinia begins operating from Corsica with P-39s. MONDAY, 7 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Bad weather again limits operations to photographic and weather reconnaissance missions. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26s bomb the bridge approach S of Manziana; B-25s hit the Viterbo marshalling yard and, in support of US Fifth army troops, bomb the town of Cisterna di Latina as the enemy counterattack begins in the Anzio area; A-20s hit Piedimonte and the road junction and railway station at Campoleone; A-36s hit San Stefano al Mare and nearby railroad siding, Pontecorvo and Belmonte in Sabina, plus several targets of opportunity and targets in support of ground forces in the battle areas; P-40s attack an observation tower at Littoria, trucks at Villa Santa Lucia degli Abruzzi, Campoleone, a railroad gun, the Sezze railroad yards, Cisterna di Latina and gun positions in battle areas. Fighters encounter heavy aircraft activity over the Anzio battle area and claim 16 shot down. 302d Fighter Squadron, 332d Fighter Group, arrives at Montecorvino, Italy from the US with P-39s; first mission is 17 Feb. Detachment of 346th Fighter Squadron, 350th Fighter Group, based in Sardinia with P-39s, begins operating from Sidi Amor, Tunisia. TUESDAY, 8 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): The 454th Bombardment Group (Heavy) with B-24s becomes operstional, giving the Fifteenth Air Force 10 operational heavy bomber groups. In Italy, B-24s bomb airfields at Viterbo, Tarquinia, Orvieto, Piombino and Prato; B-17s hit the marshalling yard at Verona; P-38s and P-47s escort the Orvieto, Piombino, and Prato missions. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s bomb Cisterna di Latina; B-26s hit the Siena marshalling yard and warehouses, and a railway bridge NE of Civita Castellana; A-20s bomb Piedimonte; A-36s attack gun positions near Ausonia, tracks between Rome and Orte, and the town of Veroli, and fly strafing and bombing sweeps in the Anzio battle area against motor transport, gun positions, road junction E of Cisterna di Latina, and the town of Pontecorvo; P-40s hit Roccasecca, Castello, Caprile. Piedimonte, Aquino and other targets, including a supply dump and gun positions; P-47s bomb Atina; Desert Air Force (DAF) fighters (US and RAF) destroy a large number of trucks near Sora. 301st Fighter Squadron, 332d Fighter Group, arrives at Montecorvino, Italy from the US with P-39s; first mission is 15 Feb. WEDNESDAY, 9 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Weather grounds all aircraft with exception of 1 P-38 which flies a weather reconnaissance mission. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s and B-26s, in close support to US Fifth Army forces, attack motor transport and troop concentrations in the Campoleone area while A-20s blast another troop concentration to the W; P-40s hit Cisterna di Latina and gun positions; A-36s and P-40s pound concentration points of a counterattack against the Fifth Army beachhead in the Anzio area, strike along the main Fifth Army front, and attack the villages of Piedimonte and Aquino and gun positions near Cassino and Ausonia. HQ 87th Fighter Wing transfers from Nouvion, Algeria to Caserta, Italy. THURSDAY, 10 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-17s bomb Albano Laziale, Cisterna di Latina and Cecina; B-24s strike Campoleone and Velletri; P-38s bomb and strafe the Tivoli, Vicovaro, and Monterotondo area; P-47s fly uneventful sweeps over Cisterna di Roma and Albano; numerous heavy bombers are forced to abort operations because of unsafe flying conditions. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Light and medium bomber missions are aborted because of bad weather. In Italy, P-40s and A-36s support an unsuccessful attempt of the US Fifth Army's 1st Infantry Division to stem an attack in the Carroceto area; P-47s fail to locate their target (Sora) and drop bombs on targets of opportunity. 347th Fighter Squadron, 350th Fighter Group, based on Corsica with P-39s, sends a detachment to Capodichino, Italy. FRIDAY, 11 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): HQ 460th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and 760th, 761st, 762d and 763d Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy) arrive at Spinazzola, Italy from the US with B-24s; first mission is 19 Mar. SATURDAY, 12 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-17s and B-24s strike troop concentrations and highways in the Cecina area and near Lake Nemi. Bad weather causes all other missions to abort. HQ 459th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and 756th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) arrive at Giulia Airfield, Italy from the US with B-24s; first mission is 2 Mar. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s attack gun positions at Campoleone and the surrounding area; B-26s hit Cecina; A-36s hit aircraft and trucks on the landing ground and in the area near Fahrica di Rorila, attack troops in the area, bomb gun positions SW of Roccasecca, and hit the towns of Fondi and Lanuvio; P-40s attack Gisterna di Roma, Sezze station and road junction, Cori and gun positions NW of Atina. HQ 61st Troop Carrier Group and 14th and 15th Troop Carrier Squadrons begin a movement from Sciacca, Sicily to England with C-47s. HQ 62d Troop Carrier Group and 7th Troop Carrier Squadron move from Ponte Olivo, Sicily to Brindisi, Italy with C-47s. SUNDAY, 13 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Operations are restricted to weather reconnaissance. 757th and 758th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 459th Bombardment Group (Heavy), arrive at Giulia Airfield, Italy from the US with B-24s; first mission is 2 Mar. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26s bomb the Bucine viaduct; B-25s and A-20s support Fifth Army forces N and E of the Anzio beachhead, blasting an ammunition dump and troop and vehicle concentrations; P-40 and A-36 fighter-bombers give support in the same areas, hitting troop concentrations, a railway tunnel, buildings, vehicles, a supply dump, and gun positions. Units moving from Sicily to England: HQ 52d Troop Carrier Wing from Agrigento; HQ 314th Troop Carrier Group and 32d Troop Carrier Squadron from Castelvetrano with C-47s. MONDAY, 14 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-17s attack the marshalling yards at Modena, Brescia, and Verona and several targets of opportunity including the airfield and Piaggio aircraft factory at Pontedera and railroad bridges and lines at Parma, Sassuolo, Rubiera, and S of Vicenza; B-17s and escorting P-47s claim 20 fighters shot down; B-24s bomb the marshalling yards at Mantua, Verona, Massa Lombarda, Fenara and Arezzo, and targets of opportunity including the Pisa and Prato marshalling yards, airfields at Pisa and Pontedera, and road-rail junction near Vaiano. 759th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 459th Bombardment Group (Heavy), arrives at Giulia Airfield from the US with B-24s; first mission is 2 Mar. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): The Twelfth Air Force loses several of its operational units, the 12th Bombardment Group (Medium) and 33d and 81st Fighter Groups being moved to India, and the 52d Troop Carrier Wing and its 4 groups being sent to England. In Italy, B-25s bomb the Perugia marshalling yard, A-20's hit Grottaferrata; A-36s attack guns in the Pontecorvo area, railway yards at Civita Castellana and Frosinone, motor transport near Genzano di Roma, airfield at Furbara, and Ferentino railway station, some of the missions being in direct support of the US Fifth Army main front; P-40s bomb and strafe troop concentrations N and E of the Anzio beachhead, scoring hits on tanks, motor transport and guns near Cisterna di Roma, Cori and Rocca di Papa; P-47s hit Colleferro and dump at Valmontone; P-40s score direct hits on a vessel and fuel dump in the Rogoznica area. 92d Fighter Squadron, 81st Fighter Group, begins a movement from Capodichino, Italy to India. TUESDAY, 15 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, around 100 B-17s bomb the Monte Cassino Benedictine Abbey. 60+ B-24s attack the Poggibonsi marshalling yard, Campoleone and Porto d'Ascoli; heavy cloud cover causes numerous aborts; all the missions are unescorted. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26s and B-25s bomb the Monte Cassino Benedictine Abbey in support of the New Zealand Corps assault to establish a bridgehead across the Rapido River S of Cassino; other B-26s bomb the railroad at Monte Molino and marshalling yard at Montepescali; A-20s attack motor transport, roads and road junction in the Albano Laziale area and NW of Valmontone; P-40s bomb concentrations near Cisterna di Roma and dumps in the Valmontone and Rocca di Papa areas; A-36s hit concentrations N of the Anzio beachhead, strafe trucks and barracks in the Frosinone-Rieti areas, bomb the Tiburtina and Trastevere marshalling yards in the Rome area and hit buildings N of Velletri. Units beginning a movement from Sicily to England with C-47s: 29th Troop Carrier Squadron, 313th Troop Carrier Group, from Trapani/Milo Airfield; 36th and 37th Troop Carrier Squadrons, 316th Troop Carrier Group, and 62d Troop Carrier Squadron, 314th Troop Carrier Group, from Castelvetrano. 91st Fighter Squadron, 81st Fighter Group, begins a movement from Montecorvino Airfield, Italy to India. WEDNESDAY, 16 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, B-24s, unescorted, bomb marshalling yards at Pontassieve, Siena, Poggibonsi and Prato, a bridge at Cecina, and a railroad and highway near Rieti. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s bomb the Orte marshalling yard and attack the Campoleone area; B-26s bomb San Stefano al Mare and hit the area near the Perugia railroad bridge, a bridge N of Orvieto, a factory near the Marsciano bridge and a bridge at Albinia Station; A-20s, with RAF and South African Air Force (SAAF) Baltimores and Spitfires, hit concentrations in the Anzio battle area; A-36s bomb the Rome/Tiburtina and Rome/Ostiense marshalling yards in the Rome area; P-40s attack Monte Cassino Abbey, pound tanks, trucks, and troop concentrations along the US Fifth Army front, and hit the towns of Fondi and Roccasecca; fighters over Anzio encounter increased air effort in conjunction with an all-out ground offensive against the Allied beachhead. 61st Troop Carrier Squadron, 314th Troop Carrier Group, begins a movement from Castelvetrano, Sicily to England with C-47s. THURSDAY, 17 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): The 455th and 456th Bombardment Groups (Heavy) become operational giving the Fifteenth Air Force 12 B-24 groups. In Italy, unescorted B-17s and B-24s attack Campoleone and Grottaferrata, motor transport parks in the Campoleone junction and Rocca di Papa areas, a troop concentration near Frascati, stores depots in the Grottaferrata area, and other targets in advance of the US Fifth Army's Anzio battle line which is under heavy counterattack by German forces. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s bomb the Campoleone and Lanuvio area, B-25s hit dumps SW of Rome and N of Anzio, and also hit guns nearby; A-20s blast a dump and troop concentrations in the Anzio area; P-47s bomb dumps near Valmontone; A-36s hit Carroceto, concentrations SE of Rome, and a railroad underpass and a factory N of Anzio; P-40s blast enemy transport, guns, and assembly areas N of Cisterna di Latina, trucks N of Anzio and N of the beachhead battleline, railroad stations at Campoleone and Carroceto, and bivouac areas, dumps, a factory, and bridge in the battle area; this entire air effort (the heaviest to date in support of troops) is aimed at helping prevent a breakthrough at the beachhead, where the Germans are committed to a full-strength counter- offensive; A-36s bomb Monte Cassino Abbey in the only air action on the US Fifth Army main front. Detachment of 23d Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron, 5th Photographic Reconnaissance Group, operating from San Servero, Italy with F-5, returns to base at Alghero, Sardinia. FRIDAY, 18 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Operations are restricted to photographic and weather reconnaissance. 764th, 765th, 766th and 767th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 461st Bombardment Group (Heavy), arrive at Venosa, Italy from the US with B-24s; first mission is 2 Apr. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, A-20s hit a troop concentration near Piedimonte; XII Air Support Command P-40s and A-36s fly 17 missions in support of US Fifth Army troops resisting the German counteroffensive which reaches its deepest penetration into the Anzio beachhead on this day; objectives include tanks, vehicles, gun positions, troop concentrations, and a railroad underpass along the Anzio-Albano Laziale axis; fighters over Anzio successfully intercept air strikes on the beachhead; New Zealand troops capture Cassino Station. HQ 321st Bombardment Group (Medium) and 445th, 446th, 447th and 448th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium) move from Vincenzo Airfield to Gaudo Airfield, Italy with B-25s. SATURDAY, 19 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Operations are again limited to reconnaissance flights. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Colonel Peter S Rask becomes acting Commanding Officer of the XII Troop Carrier Command (Provisional) until its disbandment on 5 Mar 44. In Italy, B-25s blast troop concentrations to the N of Anzio beachhead; A-36s and P-40s keep troops, tanks, and motor transport in the beachhead battle area under attack, flying 200+ sorties in 20+ missions as an Allied counterattack turns the tide of battle; fighters maintain control over the N part of the battle area. SUNDAY, 20 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-24s blast troop concentrations in the Anzio, Italy beachhead area as the Axis efforts end. HQ 461st Bombardment Group (Heavy) arrives at Torretto Airfield, Italy from the US. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26s hit troop concentrations along roads in the Vallalta area; B-25s hit dumps and assembly areas at the N edge of the Anzio beachhead, and A-20s bomb a troop and motor transport concentration SE of Carroceto; A-36s and P-40s hit troops, trucks and tanks NE of Carroceto, bomb the town of Fondi, a factory E of Carroceto, the town of Piedimonte, and hit guns and targets of opportunity along the N line of the beachhead; an Axis attempt to achieve a breakthrough is decisively defeated in the center of the salient created by a counteroffensive and their efforts end. MONDAY, 21 FEBRUARY 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s bomb Orte marshalling yard, and B-26s hit Imperia docks; A-20s pound troop concentrations near Campoleone, along with P-40s and A-36s which also hit a fuel dump, tank and truck concentrations, and gun positions in the area; fighter-bombers also bomb and block the Itri-Gaeta road. 100th Fighter Squadron, 332d Fighter Group, moves from Montecorvino to Capodichino, Italy with P-39s. TUESDAY, 22 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-17s attack Petershausen marshalling yard and Regensburg aircraft factory in Germany and the air depot at Zagreb, Yugoslavia; a large force of B-24s hits Regensburg aircraft plants about the same time as the B-17 attack; other B-24s pound the town of Sibenik and the harbor at Zara, Yugoslavia; they claim 40 Luftwaffe aircraft destroyed; 13 bombers are lost. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s bomb Foligno marshalling yard and Montalto di Castro railroad bridge, and B-26s attack Albinia Station railroad bridge; A-20s hit the area E of Campoleone; P-47s strike troops, gun positions, and a road junction N of Carroceto, roads near Roccasecca, and the town of Campoleone; A-36s hit guns NW of Carroceto and the town of Formia; P-40s attack guns SE of Campoleone. WEDNESDAY, 23 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-24s bomb the industrial complex at Steyr, Austria. Other heavy bombers are forced to abort because of bad weather; the bombers and escorting fighters claim 30+ aircraft shot down. Moves in Italy: HQ 306th Fighter Wing from Foggia to Lucera; 764th, 765th, 766th and 767th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 461st Bombardment Group (Heavy), from Venosa to Torretto with B-24s (first mission is 2 Apr). TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, P-40s hit a gun position N of Campoleone and patrol the Anzio area. Weather prevents other operations. THURSDAY, 24 FEBRUARY 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s attack Canino landing ground, but clouds prevent accurate bombing and most bombs fall W and SW of the main target area; A-36s attack airfields at Littoria, Guidonia and Marciglialia. P-47's hit motor vessels and tug off Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia and targets of opportunity inland. FRIDAY, 25 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Continuing coordinated attacks with the Eighth Air Force on European targets, B-17s with fighter escorts pound Regensburg aircraft factory; enemy fighter opposition is heavy. Other B-17s hit the air depot at Klagenfurt, Austria and the dock area at Pola, Italy. B-24s attack Fiume, Italy marshalling yard and port and hit Zell-am- See, Austria railroad and Graz airfield and the port area at Zara, Yugoslavia; 30+ US aircraft are lost; they claim 90+ fighters shot down. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, P-40s attack guns and troop concentrations E of Campoleone and in the Carroceto area; A-36s bomb the towns of Terracina and Sperlonga and roads in the area; P-40s also maintain patrols over Anzio. SATURDAY, 26 FEBRUARY 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Weather limits operations severely, but P-47's hit shipping N and S of Velaluka, Yugoslavia. 379th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 310th Bombardment Group (Medium), moves from Philippeville, Algeria to Ghisonaccia, Corsica; they have been operating from Gambit, Libya with B-25s. SUNDAY, 27 FEBRUARY 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, A-36s attack Littoria and Guidonia Airfields and Ladispoli dock area; rail cars NE of Rome are also attacked; P-40s follow up with a raid against Littoria and hit trucks and other targets in the area; weather prevents other operations by the Twelfth Air Force. 4th Troop Carrier Squadron, 62d Troop Carrier Group, moves from Catania to Ponte Olivo, Sicily with C-47s. MONDAY, 28 FEBRUARY TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s attack Canino landing ground, but clouds prevent accurate bombing and most bombs fall W and SW of the main target area; A-36s attack airfields at Littoria, Guidonia and Marciglialia. P-47's hit motor vessels and a tug off Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia and targets of opportunity inland. TUESDAY, 29 FEBRUARY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): For the fourth consecutive day, bad weather limits operations to reconnaissance missions. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26s bomb the main and satellite airfields at Viterbo and several targets of opportunity along the W coast; B-25s bomb troops and gun positions W of Cisterna di Roma while A-20s hit concentrations to the S; P-40s and A-36s strike at troop concentrations along the N perimeter of the Anzio beachhead; other P-40s hit barracks and railroad yards at Littoria and a tank concentration S of Cisterna; P-47's (with British aircraft) hit Giulianova railway station and shipping off Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia; fighters maintain patrol over the Anzio beachhead.

MARCH 1944 - MEDITERRANEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS (MTO)

WEDNESDAY, 1 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): For the 5th consecutive day, bad weather forbids all operations except reconnaissance missions. Moves in Italy during Mar: HQ 55th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) to Spinazzola from the US; HQ 305th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) from Spinazzola to Bari. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Twelfth Air Force undergoes a reorganization as a result of the loss of several operational units (see 14 Feb 44). XII Troop Carrier Command (Provisional), consisting of a single wing, is disbanded and its personnel absorbed into the 51st Troop Carrier Wing and other units, the 51st Troop Carrier Wing being placed under the administrative control of Twelfth Air Force. HQ XII Bomber Command is reduced to 1 officer and 1 enlisted man as other personnel are transferred to the 57th Bombardment Wing, which along with the 42d Bombardment Wing (Medium), is placed under the administrative control of Twelfth Air Force. HQ XII Bomber Command will exist as a retaining cadre until 10 Jun 44 when it is officially disbanded. In Italy, P-40s attack gun positions and vehicles in the US Fifth Army battle area; P-40s and Spitfires of XII Air Support Command maintain cover over the Anzio beachhead area. P-47s attack a 2000-ton vessel in the Adriatic Sea. HQ 57th Fighter Group and 65th and 66th Fighter Squadrons move from Amendola to Cercola, Italy with P-47s. During March, the detachments of the 347th Fighter Squadron, 350th Fighter Group, operating from Capodichino, Italy with P-39s returns to base on Corsica. THURSDAY, 2 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 459th Bombardment Group (Heavy) (with B-24s) becomes operational, giving the Fifteenth Air Force 13 heavy bomber groups on combat status. In Italy, nearly 300 B-17s and B-24s, escorted by 150+ P-38s and P-47s, support the US Fifth Army's Anzio beachhead, bombing the Cisterna di Roma-La Villa area, Velletri, and troop concentrations, guns and other military targets in the battle area at several points, including the Stazione di Campoleone and Carroceto areas. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26s attack an assembly area E of Carroceto and, with B-25s, bomb guns and an assembly area NW of Cisterna di Roma, A-20s hit troops in the beachhead battle area; P-40s and A-36s blast troops and guns throughout the Anzio battle area, also hitting Cisterna and Littoria; P-40s and A-36s fly uneventful cover over Anzio. P-47s hit a motor vessel off Sibenik, Yugoslavia leaving it burning. FRIDAY, 3 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Around 200 B-17s and B-24s, with 50+ P-47s as escort, hit targets in Italy; the B-17s hit the Rome, Littorio and Tiburtina marshalling yards; the B-24s hit Canino landing ground and Viterbo and Fabrica di Roma air depots; 80+ B-24s and 100+ P-38s abort because of bad weather. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s bomb Rome/Ostiense and railroad stations at San Benedetto de Marsi; weather cancels light and other medium bomber operations; P-40s hit gun positions in the N Anzio beachhead area while A-36s attack the train and tented area between Magliano Romano and Rome; other P-40s fly patrol over the Anzio beachhead area. 64th Fighter Squadron, 57th Fighter Group, moves from Amendola to Cercola, Italy with P-40s. SATURDAY, 4 MARCH 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, weather cancels most operations; P-40s fly a few sorties against gun emplacements in the battle area, and others uneventfully patrol the Anzio area. SUNDAY, 5 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): HQ 451st Bombardment Group (Heavy) moves from Gioia del Colle to San Pancrazio, Italy. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): XII Troop Carrier Command (Provisional) is disbanded at Palermo. Weather again severely hampers operations in Italy, but P-40s hit Pontecorvo and A-36s attack Formia. MONDAY, 6 MARCH 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, P-40s pound gun positions N of the Anzio beachhead (mostly NE of Ardea), and bomb Frosinone and hit guns near Littoria; A-36s fly armed reconnaissance of roads and railroad NE of Rome, hitting several vehicles and bombing railroad cars at Capranica. 302d Fighter Squadron, 332d Fighter Group, moves from Montecorvino to Capodichino, Italy with P-39s. TUESDAY, 7 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Around 300 B-17s and B-24s hit targets in France and Italy; the B-17s bomb the Toulon, France submarine base; in Italy, B-24s hit marshalling yards at Poggibonsi, Pontassieve and Prato and air depots at Orvieto, Rome and Viterbo. P-47s and P-38s fly about 150 sorties in support of the bombers. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s bomb the Rome/ Ostiense marshalling yard while other B-25s hit the Littoria marshalling yard; A-20s strike the Zagarolo railroad station; P-40s attack enemy positions in the Anzio beachhead area with good results, while A-36s hit communication at Montebello, railroad station near Civitavecchia, gun emplacements near Littoria Airfield, and a train at Monterotondo; P-40s over the Anzio beachhead encounter no air opposition. WEDNESDAY, 8 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Moves in Italy: HQ 306th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) from Lucera to Torremaggiore; 724th, 725th, 726th and 727th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 451st Bombardment Group (Heavy), from Gioia del Colle to San Pancrazio with B-24s. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s strike at the Orte marshalling yard and Orte-Fabrica di Roma railroad; B-26s hit the Rome/ Tiburtina marshalling yard and dock area at Porto Santo Stefano; P-40 fighter- bombers hit gun positions and a road junction near Rome while A-36s attack a road junction near Montalto di Castro, also hitting a bridge and a train, and guns and a castle SW of Celano; P-47s hit gun emplacements; P-40s strafe vehicles near Rome/Via Appia. THURSDAY, 9 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): HQ 463d Bombardment Group (Heavy) arrives at Celone Airfield, Italy from the US. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s strike the dock area of Porto Stefano, some bombs falling in the Port'oErcole area; B-25s bomb a bridge at Montalto di Castro; A-20s hit a tank repair depot N of Tivoli; P-40s blast gun positions W of Campoleone, W of Pratica di Mare, and S of Ciampino; A-36s bomb Capranica railroad station and targets nearby; and fighters fly uneventful patrols over Anzio. FRIDAY, 10 MARCH 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26s bomb the Rome/ Tiburtina marshalling yard and unsuccessfully attack the Orvieto railroad bridge, while B-25s hit the Littoria marshalling yard; P-40s and A-36s strike at enemy positions on the coast at San Felice Circeo, gun positions E of Littoria, guns and tanks at Cisterna di Roma, railroad at Montalto di Castro, train at Monte Libretti station and railway buildings at Zagarolo; and fighters patrol the Anzio area without incident. Flight of the 5th Combat Mapping Squadron, 3d Photographic Group (Reconnaissance), begins operating from San Severo, Italy with F-5s; the squadron is based at Pomigliano, Italy. SATURDAY, 11 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): About 100 B-24s, escorted by 30+ P-38s, bomb the harbor at Toulon, France. In Italy, 100+ B-17s, escorted by 50+ P-47s, hit the marshalling yard at Padua; other B-24s bomb the marshalling yards at Pontassieve and Prato and hit the airfield at Iesi. The bombers and fighters claim destruction of 30+ enemy aircraft in the air. 772d Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 463d Bombardment Group (Heavy), arrives at Celone Airfield, Italy with B-17s; first mission is 16 Mar. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers strike at Florence, Orvieto and Fabriano marshalling yards with good results; P-40, A-36, and P-47 fighter-bombers attack a supply depot, railroad station, and factory in areas NE of Monterotondo, and numerous other targets, including gun positions in the battle areas, railroad facilities, and 2 supply trains. SUNDAY, 12 MARCH 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): 345th Fighter Squadron, 350th Fighter Group, ceases operating form Corsica with P-39s and returns to base on Sardinia. MONDAY, 13 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 775th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 463d Bombardment Group (Heavy), arrives at Celone Airfield, Italy from the US with B-17s; first mission is 18 Mar. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26s bomb railway bridges NW and W of Sarzana and at Viareggio. hit tracks S of the latter, and, along with South African Air Force (SAAF) light bombers, bomb Fabriano marshalling yard; B-25s bomb Spoleto marshalling yard, hitting E and W chokepoints and line to Terni, and also attack Perugia marshalling yard with less successful results; and A-36s bomb a railroad station between Orte and Orvieto while P-40s hit a supply dump near Velletri and gun positions along a beachhead line directly S of Rome. TUESDAY, 14 MARCH 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26s bomb Prenestina marshalling yard and nearby chemical plant; B-25s strike Terni and Orte marshalling yards, causing considerable damage, while A-20s attack tank repair facilities unsuccessfully; P-40s attack guns in the Anzio beachhead area and also hit a supply dump; and A-36s and P-47s hit railway stations and the town of Ortia. WEDNESDAY, 15 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, 300+ B-24s and B-17s bomb Cassino, the area S of Cassino and areas near Venafro in support of the US Fifth Army; 250+ other heavy bombers return to base without bombing because of complete cloud cover of their target areas; extensive fighter cover over the Cassino area is provided by P-38s, and P-47s fly 2 sweeps over the Viterbo-Canino area; there is no fighter opposition. Arrivals in Italy from the US: 773d Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 463d Bombardment Group (Heavy), at Celone Airfield, Italy with B-17s (first mission is 30 Mar); 780th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 465th Bombardment Group (Heavy), at Pantanella Airfield with B-24s (first mission is 5 May). TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium and fighter- bombers, together with Mediterranean Allied Strategic Air Force (MASAF) heavy bombers and other aircraft of the Mediterranean Allied Tactical Air Force (MATAF) in the greatest air effort yet made in the MTO, rain bombs upon enemy concentrations in Cassino and surrounding areas as the New Zealand Corps begins the third battle of Cassino; light and medium bombers also hit a command post E of Ceprano and the town of San Benedetto de Marsi; fighters on patrol and a sweep over Anzio, Cassino and Rome meet no air opposition. THURSDAY, 16 MARCH 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, light, medium and fighter-bombers blast gun positions in the Cassino-Piedimonte area as the battle of Cassino rages on; fighter-bombers also hit gun positions along the Anzio beachhead front. FRIDAY, 17 MARCH 1944 - ST PATRICK'S DAY STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 200+ B-24s bomb Vienna, Austria and various targets of opportunity escorted by P-47s and P-38s; 100+ B-17s abort because of bad weather. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s bomb Montepescali marshalling yard, Cecina, Roccasecca and Castrocielo, while A-20s hit troop concentrations in the Cassino area; and fighter-bombers hit guns in the Cassino area and attack a nearby railroad bridge and underpass with good results. SATURDAY, 18 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, 950+ B-17s and B-24s bomb aviation targets; B-17s hit Villaorba Landing Ground and Udine aviation depot; B-24s bomb Lavariano and Maniago Landing Grounds and Gorizia aviation depot; 126 P-38s and P-47s carry out sweeps in the Udine-Maniago area and strafe aircraft at Udine Airfield, a tanker S of Marano Lagoon and a hangar, 2 trains, 2 radar stations, and a seaplane anchorage (destroying 6 seaplanes) at Belvedere; the bombers and escorts claim 48 enemy fighters destroyed, 9 US aircraft are downed. 774th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 463d Bombardment Group (Heavy), arrives at Celone Airfield, Italy from the US with B-17s; first mission is 30 Mar. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s, B-26s, and A-20s bomb Foligno marshalling yard, Orvieto marshalling yard and railroad bridge, Poggibonsi railroad bridge, Piombino dock area, Colleferro railroad tracks and assembly area N of Anzio; P-40s, A-36s, and P-47s attack gun positions in the Anzio beachhead area, a factory at Carroceto, motor transport concentrations in the Cassino area, fuel dump, tank repair depot, and bivouac in the beachhead area, motor transport around Ladispoli, railroad bridge N of Rome, and railroad tracks and cars at other points. SUNDAY, 19 MARCH 1944 MEDITERRANEAN ALLIED TACTICAL AIR FORCE (MATAF): Mediterranean Allied Tactical Air Force (MATAF) issues a directive for Operation STRANGLE, to interdict supply movements in Italy by destroying marshalling yards and attacking rail lines and ports in a concentrated campaign. STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 460th Bombardment Group (Heavy) with B-24s is declared operational making a total of 14 bomb groups operational in the Fifteenth Air Force. 234 B-17s and B-24s, escorted by 100+ fighters, bomb the air depot at Klagenfurt, Austria; 150+ B-24s also hit the air depot at Graz, Austria and the marshalling yards at Knin and Metkovic, Yugoslavia; Luftwaffe fighters provide fierce opposition and along with AA fire, shoot down 17 bombers and 1 fighter; US aircraft claim 30 enemy fighters destroyed in combat. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26s attack a road bridge W of Arezzo and port installations at San Stefano al Mare; B-25s hit a bridge approach in S Orvieto, marshalling yards at Avezzano and Orte and a bridge at Orte; tank repair shops near Tivoli are bombed by A-20s; and P-47s and P-40s strike at enemy concentrations, dumps and guns in the US Fifth Army main battle area and in the area N of the Anzio beachhead. MONDAY, 20 MARCH 1944 ARMY AIR FORCE, MTO: 121st Liaison Squadron, AAF, MTO, arrives at Oran, Algeria from the US with L-4s and L-5s; first mission is in Sep 44. STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): HQ 464th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and 778th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) arrive at Pantanell Airfield, Italy from the US with B-24s; first mission is 30 Apr. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): 310th Bombardment Group (Medium) is transferred from the XII Fighter Command to the 57th Bombardment Wing, thus consolidating all B-25 units of the Twelfth Air Force under 1 wing. In Italy, B-25s strike the harbor and shipping at Piombino, the Poggibonsi railroad bridge, Port' Ercole and the area around the Orvieto railroad bridge; B-25s hit Orvieto marshalling yard and underpass and road bridge nearby, Terni marshalling yard and dock at San Stefano al Mare; a factory at Fontana Liri is accurately bombed by A-20s; P-40s hit troop concentrations, guns and fuel dump in the Cassino-Fontana Liri area while A-36s blast the railway station at Frosinone and also drop food for troops in the Cassino area; and P-47s hit a fuel dump at Fontana Liri. HQ 62d Troop Carrier Group moves from Brindisi, Italy to Ponte Olivo, Sicily. 414th Night Fighter Squadron, 63d Fighter Wing, based at Elmas, Sardinia with Beaufighters sends a detachment to operate from Ghisonaccia, Corsica until Jul 44. TUESDAY, 21 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Bad weather limits operations to photographic and weather reconnaissance missions. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s make an unsuccessful attempt to bomb the Poggibonsi bridge; weather cancels other B-25 missions and all A-20 operations; B-26s attack Arezzo and Bucine viaducts and Poggibonsi and Cecina railroad bridges; P-47s hit railroad bridges N of Rome while P-40s bomb targets in the Anzio area; and A-36s drop food in the Cassino area. WEDNESDAY, 22 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, around 100 B-17s bomb the marshalling yards at Verona while about 100 B-24s hit marshalling yards at Bologna and Rimini; P-38s and P-47s provide cover for all the missions; 2 bombers are lost to flak and another has to ditch. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26s attack the Poggibonsi railroad bridge and viaduct W of Arezzo; B-25s hit a road bridge near Poggibonsi; P-40s bomb guns in the Avezzano and Pico areas; P-40s on patrols over Anzio and Cassino claim 2 fighters destroyed. Moves in Italy: HQ 47th Bombardment Group (Light) and 84th, 85th, 86th and 97th Bombardment Squadrons (Light) from Vesuvius Airfield to Capodichino with A-20s; 486th and 488th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium), 340th Bombardment Group (Medium), from Pompeii to Gaudo Airfield with B-25s. THURSDAY, 23 MARCH 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26s bomb Florence/ Campo di Marte marshalling yard while B-25s hit the Pontassieve railway bridge and its approaches; P-40s attack guns in the Cassino-Esperia area, causing many fires and explosions; A-36s bomb the Cassino area with good results; the Germans have been forced into a narrow zone in the W edge of Cassino but still hold positions commanding the town and the Abbey; the New Zealand Corps breaks off the attack. HQ 340th Bombardment Group (Medium) moves from Pompeii to Paestum, Italy. FRIDAY, 24 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, 100+ B-24s bomb Rimini marshalling yard while 32 others attack Ancona, Senigallia and rail and road bridges over the Vomano River S of Giulianova; 200+ other B-17s and B-24s turn back before reaching the target and before rendezvous with the fighter escorts; and 3 B-17s and 1 B-24 hit targets of opportunity in Italy and Yugoslavia; 6 B-24s are lost; the bombers claim 10 enemy fighters destroyed. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s pound supply and bivouac areas in Piedimonte and Castrocielo and harbor installations at Leghorn; B-25s hit bridge and railroad tracks NW of Orvieto, and A-20s bomb guns in the Cassino area; P-40s and A-36s in Cassino area hit guns, troop concentrations, road, and causeway; and P-47s on armed reconnaissance in the Rome-Orvieto-Orte areas hit a train and a bridge. Moves in Italy: 11th Troop Carrier Squadron, 60th Troop Carrier Group, from Gerbini, Sicily to Brindisi with C-47s; 487th and 489th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium), 340th Bombardment Group (Medium), from Pompeii to Gaudo Airfield with B-25s. SATURDAY, 25 MARCH 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Weather severely curtails operations. In Italy, B-26s bomb the Leghorn dockyard and town of Rignano sull' Amo; P-40 fighter-bombers attack gun positions in the Anzio beachhead battle area; and fighters fly cover over the Anzio and Cassino areas. Moves in Italy: 28th Troop Carrier Squadron, 60th Troop Carrier Group, from Gerbini, Sicily to Brindisi with C-47s; 415th Night Fighter Squadron, 64th Fighter Wing, from Marcianise to Pomigliano with Beaufighters. SUNDAY, 26 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 60+ B-17s and B-24s hit targets in Italy; the B-17s bomb Fiume docks and shipping; the B-24s hit Maniago Landing Ground, Udine air depot and Rimini marshalling yard; P-47s and P-38s provide escort; 150+ other B-17s and B-24s abort missions because of bad weather. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Operations are at a minimum as bad weather continues. In Italy, B-26s score numerous hits on Arezzo viaducts, B-25s attack the Perugia railway bridge, scoring near misses, and A-20s successfully bomb troop concentrations N of Velletri; P-47s achieve direct hits on a railway bridge NW of Stimigliano and near misses on a railway bridge SW of Tarquinia; and P-40s hit guns near Fontana Liri and N of the Anzio beachhead with good results. HQ 60th Troop Carrier Group moves from Gerbini, Sicily to Brindisi, Italy. MONDAY, 27 MARCH 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, A-20s successfully bomb the Sesti Bagni railway station; B-26s hit Poggibonsi railway bridge, and tracks and train cars in the area; and B-25s attack bridges at Marsciano, Perugia and Grosseto railroad bridges, scoring damaging hits at Grosseto; P-40s hit a command post and supply dumps, and fly road reconnaissance SE of Rome with good results; A-36s bomb Sesti Bagni railway station and nearby trucks, while P-47s attack a bridge, junctions and train cars on the Rome- Orvieto railroad; and P-47s and P-40s maintain cover over the Cassino and Anzio battle areas. TUESDAY, 28 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Almost 400 B-17s and B-24s, the largest attack to date, bomb marshalling yards in Italy; the B-17s hit Verona; the B-24s hit Mestre and Verona marshalling yards and railway and highway bridges at Fano and Cessno; P-38s and P-40s provide excellent coverage and no bombers are lost; the bombers and escorts claim 12 fighters destroyed; 5 US fighters are lost. 16th Reconnaissance Squadron (Bomber), 68th Tactical Reconnaissance Group (attached to AAF, MTO), based at Foch Field, Tunisia begins operating from Foggia, Italy with B-17s. 781st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 465th Bombardment Group (Heavy), arrives at Pantanella Airfield, Italy from the US with B-24s; first mission is 5 May. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s knock out the bridge approach E of Perugia and bomb the railway junction and marshalling yard at Montepescali; B-25s bomb a railway bridge S of Mignano and viaduct to the SE, and hit Certaldo railway bridge; A-20s attack a tank factory N of Tivoli; P-40s strike guns in the Anzio area; guns, trucks, and roads during armed reconnaissance of the Cassino-Giulianello area; and supply dumps and truck parks near Velletri and Sora; A-36s attack 2 railroad bridges and tracks at Montalto di Castro and near Orvieto; and fighters carry out a patrol over the Anzio and Cassino areas. Moves in Italy: HQ 87th Fighter Wing from Caserta to Bastia, Corsica; and HQ 57th Fighter Group and 65th and 66th Fighter Squadrons from Cercola to Alto, Corsica with P-47s. WEDNESDAY, 29 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): About 400 B-17s and B-24s (largest total to date) hit 3 targets in Italy; the B-17s bomb the ball bearing factory, marshalling yard and industrial area at Turin; the B-24s hit Bolzano and Milan marshalling yards; P-47s and P-38s fly escort; the bombers and fighters claim 13 aircraft destroyed; 6 US aircraft are lost. HQ 325th Fighter Group and 317th, 318th and 319th Fighter Squadrons move from Foggia to Lesina, Italy with P-47s. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s attack Viterbo Airfield, causing considerable damage to the target; B-26s hit Leghorn and many small craft nearby. French B-26s attached to the Twelfth Air Force bomb Portoferraio on Elba; P-40s attack supply dumps and a bivouac area SE of Rome, a tank repair shop E of Rome and guns and supply dumps E of Velletri; P-47s cut lines at a railway overpass W of Rome while A-36s bomb harbors at San Stefano al Mare and Civitavecchia and hit nearby targets of opportunity; Spitfires, P-40s, and P-47s patrol the Anzio battle area. Unit moves in Italy: 7th Troop Carrier Squadron, 62d Troop Carrier Group, from Brindisi to Pone Olivo, Sicily with C-47s; 12th Troop Carrier Squadron, 60th Troop Carrier Group from Gerbini, Sicily to Brindisi, Italy with C-47s. THURSDAY, 30 MARCH 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 463d Bombardment Group (Heavy) with B-17s becomes the 15th bomber group declared operational by the Fifteenth Air Force. Nearly 350 B-17s and B-24s bomb marshalling yards at Sofia, Bulgaria and an industrial complex and airfield at Imotski, Yugoslavia. Escorting fighters and the bombers claim 13 enemy fighters shot down; 4 bombers are lost. 777th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 464th Bombardment Group (Heavy) arrives at Pantanella Airfield, Italy from the US with B-24s; first mission is 30 Apr. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s hit the harbor at Leghorn and railroad bridge NW of Orte; P-40s and A-36s attack an ammunition dump NW of Roccasecca, trucks and supply dump NE of Tivoli and near Fumone and Gaeta, railroad bridges SE of Civita Castellana and NW of Stimigliano and Orvieto and motor transport N of Cori and at scattered points. 64th Fighter Squadron, 57th Fighter Group, moves from Cercola, Italy to Alto, Corsica with P-47s. FRIDAY, 31 MARCH 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Weather prevents completion of most Twelfth Air Force operations; P-47s carry out a sweep N of Rome, Italy.

APRIL 1944 - MEDITERRANEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS (MTO)

SATURDAY, 1 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Moves in Italy during Apr: HQ 49th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) arrives from the US; HQ 68th Tactical Reconnaissance Group from Manduria to Blida, Algeria. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s attack Leghorn harbor, bridges at Orvieto, and railway track S of Poggibonsi; B-26s hit Arno River railroad bridges at Signa, Riva-Trigoso, and Valdarno, while A-20s hit ammunition dumps; P-40s hit targets in the vicinity of Gaeta, Formia tunnel, several fuel dumps, bridges, and guns in the battle areas; P-47s bomb Poggibonsi bridge and strafe a train; and fighters patrol the Anzio battle area without incident. During Apr, XII Bomber Command moves from Trocchia, Italy to Corsica; 4th Troop Carrier Squadron, 62d Troop Carrier Group, and 16th, 17th, 18th and 35th Troop Carrier Squadrons, 64th Troop Carrier Group begin operating from bases in India until Jun 44 with C-47s. SUNDAY, 2 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 461st Bombardment Group (Heavy) with B-24s becomes operational, making 16 heavy bomber groups now operational. 530+ B-24s and B-17s (largest mission to date) attack targets in Austria and Yugoslavia; the B-17s hit the ball bearing plant at Steyr, Austria and marshalling yard at Brod, Yugoslavia; the B-24s hit an aircraft factory and depot and ball bearing factory at Steyr, and in Yugoslavia, an air depot at Mostar and marshalling yard at Bihac; fighters fly 150+ sorties in support of the bombers; hundreds of enemy fighters oppose the missions and fierce air battles result in 19 bombers shot down and several missing; the AAF claims 150+ enemy fighters. HQ 31st Fighter Group and 307th and 308th Fighter Squadrons move from Castel Volturno to San Severo, Italy with P-51s. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers attack railroad bridges at Arezzo, Fano, Ficulle, Magra, N of Orvieto, and S of Poggibonsi, scoring some direct hits, hits on approaches, and several near misses; fighter-bombers hit trucks and the railroad station at Fara in Sabina and E and N of Anzio, attack the Formia tunnel, fly armed reconnaissance over the Atina and Arce areas, bomb a factory and buildings N of Cassino, the town of Pignataro Interamna and numerous bridges, dumps, gun positions and targets of opportunity in or around the battle areas. 99th Fighter Squadron, XII Air Support Command, attached to 324th Fighter Group, moves from Capodichino to Cercola, Italy with P-40s. MONDAY, 3 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 450+ B-17s and B-24s bomb targets in Hungary and Yugoslavia; the B-17s hit an aircraft factory in Budapest, Hungary and a marshalling yard at Brod, Yugoslavia; the B-24s hit a marshalling yard at Budapest; 137 fighters escort the B-17s (B-24s miss the rendezvous) to Budapest; the bombers and escorting fighters claim 24 enemy aircraft shot down. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers attack railway bridges at Orvieto, cutting approaches to a bridge to the N of town; other medium bomber attacks on bridges abort because of weather but light bombers successfully bomb an ammunition dump; A-36s attack the railway at Attigliano and bomb an underpass in the area, while P-40s hit Sesti Bagni railroad station, a supply dump SE of Frosinone, the town of Itri, a bivouac area NW of Velletri and several trucks; and P-47s successfully bomb Pignataro Interamna and nearby road junction. TUESDAY, 4 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 300+ B-17s and B-24s attack Bucharest, Rumania; both hit marshalling yards and the B-24s also hit an air depot; fighters fly nearly 120 sorties in support of the mission; between 150 and 200 enemy fighters attack the bombers, shooting down 10; the bombers and escorts claim 50+ aircraft destroyed in combat. 309th Fighter Squadron, 31st Fighter Group, moves from Castel Volturno to San Severo, Italy with P-51s. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bomber missions are aborted due to weather but light bombers manage to bomb an ammunition dump and fighter-bombers bomb Terracina and Formia, attack a bridge and several vehicles during armed reconnaissance of the Rome-Orte area, bomb Itri and Fondi, hit numerous gun positions, a railway station, a bivouac area, and a vehicle concentration, and attack targets of opportunity between Atina and Cassino. WEDNESDAY, 5 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 334 B-17s and B-24s hit targets in Rumania and Yugoslavia; the B-17s bomb a marshalling yard at Ploesti, Rumania and Nis, Yugoslavia; the B-24s hit a marshalling yard at Ploesti and Leskovac, Yugoslavia; fighters and AA shoot down 13 bombers. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, weather precludes all light and medium bomber action; P-40s hit the Colleferro railway station, several fuel dumps, and gun positions in the US Fifth Army battle areas; A-36s bomb Formia, and railway stations NW of Rome and in the Frosinone area. THURSDAY, 6 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): B-24s bomb the airfield at Zagreb, Yugoslavia; numerous other B-24s and B-17s abort because of weather; escorting fighters and the bombers claim 17 enemy fighters destroyed in combat; 6 US aircraft are shot down. HQ 451st Bombardment Group (Heavy) and 724th, 725th, 726th and 727th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy) move from San Pancrazio and Manduria to Castelluccio Airfield, Italy with B-24s. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s hit Perugia Airfield while B-26s bomb a bridge and its approaches NW of Orvieto; weather prevents other medium bomber operations; fighter-bombers attack the railroad stations at Capronica and Maccarese, guns SE of Littoria, a road bridge E of Pescasseroli, railroad bridges in the Arezzo area, other rail facilities in C Italy, and small transport vessels in the Aegean Sea. 10th Troop Carrier Squadron, 60th Troop Carrier Group, moves from Pomigliano to Brindisi, Italy with C-47s. FRIDAY, 7 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, 400+ B-17s and B-24s attack marshalling yards; the B-17s bomb Treviso; the B-24s hit Mestre and Bologna; almost 100 P-38s provide escort; P-47s fly a sweep over the Gorizia- Udine area; the bombers and fighters claim almost 20 aircraft shot down. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers attack bridges, tracks and a viaduct at Attigliano, Ficulle, Certaldo, Pontassieve and Incisa in Valdarno, and hit Prato marshalling yard; light bombers hit an ammunition dump; Ausonia, Pignataro Interamna, San Apollinare and Terracina are bombed by P-40s along with a dump and several gun positions SE of Rome; P-47s also hit bridges and trucks in this same area and attack the Empoli marshalling yard while A-36s hit gun emplacements, train and tracks in the Orvieto area and vicinity and approaches to the Montalto di Castro bridge. SATURDAY, 8 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): HQ 484th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and 824th and 827th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy) arrive at Torretto Airfield, Italy from the US with B-24s; first mission is 29 Apr. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers attack a bridge NW of Orte while A-20s successfully attack supply stores; fighter- bombers hit several bridges, motor transport, and supply dumps in C Italy, and bomb railroad tracks at Sesti Bagni and Maccarese. SUNDAY, 9 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 815th, 816th, 817th and 840th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 483d Bombardment Group (Heavy), arrive at Sterparone Airfield, Italy from the US with B-17s; first mission is 12 Apr. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, P-40 and A-36 fighter- bombers bomb the railroad line between Rome and Bracciano, hitting tracks, a station, and a warehouse; attack Littoria and Terracina, repair shops NW of Valmontone and several gun positions; and bomb scattered motor transport during armed reconnaissance of the Avezzano-Sora-Pontecorvo-Ceprano areas. 379th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 310th Bombardment Group (Medium), moves from Ghisonaccia, Corsica to Fano, Italy with B-25s. MONDAY, 10 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 776th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 464th Bombardment Group (Heavy), arrives at Pantanella Airfield, Italy from the US with B-24s; first mission is 30 Apr. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, A-20s hit an ammunition dump at Gallicano nel Lazio; B-25s bomb the Orvieto marshalling yard and 2 bridges; B-26s hit Poggibonsi and Cecina railroad bridges and tracks, and viaducts at Bucine and W of Arezzo; fighter-bombers operating over wide areas of C Italy and in the battle zones hit railroad bridges, railroad cars, motor transport, barracks, and troop concentrations with good effect. 522d, 523d and 524th Fighter-Bomber Squadrons, 27th Fighter-Bomber Group, move from Pomigliano to Castel Volturno, Italy with A-36s and P-40s. TUESDAY, 11 APRIL 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s hit the Montalto di Castro railroad bridge, while B-26s hit marshalling yards at Ancona and Siena; fighter-bombers concentrate on attacks against railroad targets NE of Rome and buildings inland from the E coast; tracks are hit hard in the Arezzo-Pontassieve area as are stations at Maccarese and Cesano; an overpass, bridges, railroad cars and dumps throughout C Italy are attacked, as is the town of Gaeta. 488th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 340th Bombardment Group (Medium), moves from Gaudo Airfield, Italy to Alesan, Corsica with B-25s. WEDNESDAY, 12 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 483d Bombardment Group (Heavy) with B-17s becomes operational, increasing the number of combat status bomber groups to 17. Bad weather lifts, permitting bomber operations; almost 450 B-17s and B-24s attack targets in Austria and Yugoslavia; the B-17s hit aircraft factories at Fischamend Markt, Austria and Split, Yugoslavia; the B-24s hit the industrial area at Wiener Neustadt and Bad Voslau, Austria and the marshalling yard and air depot at Zagreb, Yugoslavia; 200+ P-38s and P-47s provide escort; the bombers and fighters claim 30+ enemy aircraft shot down; 8 US airplanes are known lost and several more fail to return. HQ 465th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and 783d Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) arrive at Pantanell Airfield, Italy from the US with B-24s; first mission is 5 May. 122d Liaison Squadron, 68th Tactical Reconnaissance Group, moves from Manduria, Italy to Blida, Algeria with B-17s; the squadron, which has been transporting supplies to partisans and dropping leaflets in the MTO, will be redesignated 885th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) on 12 May and was re-equipped with B-24s. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers bomb rail lines approaching the Monte Molino bridge and at a nearby junction to the Viterbo line, railroad and road bridges S of Orvieto and at Certaldo, tracks approaching a bridge at Impeda, and railroad bridges over the Var River and at Albenga; light bombers pound the Zagarolo supply dump; fighter-bombers and fighters (some operating with British aircraft) hit communications (mainly railroad bridges), vehicles, supply dumps at various places, including Arezzo, the island of Elba, Orvieto, NE of Grosseto, NW of Bracciano, Civita Castellana, Montalto di Castro, between Piombino and Viterbo, in the Castiglioncello area, NW of Montepescali and S of Cecina. THURSDAY, 13 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 535 heavy bombers (largest bomber mission to date) bomb targets in Hungary; the B-17s bomb an aircraft plant and depot at Gyor; the B-24s bomb an aircraft factory at Budapest and air depots at Budapest, Tokol and Vecses; fighter opposition and AA account for 14 US bombers and 1 fighter shot down; 40 enemy fighters are claimed shot down and 120+ aircraft destroyed on the ground. 779th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 464th Bombardment Group (Heavy), arrives at Pantanella Airfield, Italy from the US with B-24s; first mission is 30 Apr. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s attack Terni and a bridge at Marsciano while B-26s bomb Ancona marshalling yard and a nearby railroad bridge; fighter-bombers again strike mainly at communications, the town of Itri, Cesano station, a factory at Fontana Liri, a railroad overpass at Fara in Sabina, Anguillara, and bridges, trucks and other targets at points throughout C Italy. FRIDAY, 14 APRIL 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s attack Viterbo Airfield and Leghorn marshalling yard, B-26s strike at Poggibonsi, Certaldo, Cecina and Magra, attacking mostly rail facilities and hit Arezzo bridge and viaduct and Bucine viaducts; fighter-bombers also concentrate on rail lines and bridges and hit many supply dumps, gun positions and factories, generally located NE of Rome. HQ 340th Bombardment Group (Medium) moves from Paestum, Italy to Corsica. SATURDAY, 15 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Clearing weather again permits bomber operations. 448 B-17s and B-24s attack marshalling yards; B-17s hit Ploesti, Rumania and Nis, Yugoslavia; B-24s hit Bucharest, Rumania; 150+ fighters provide escort. A special group, led by Lieutenant Colonel Louis A Neveleff, flies from HQ at Bari, Italy to Medeno Polji, Yugoslavia and from there the group proceeds to Marshall Tito's HQ at Drvar, where Colonel Neveleff confers with Tito and spends several days laying the groundwork for the evacuation of downed US airmen in Yugoslav hands. Also, much information is gathered regarding the military organization and political trend of the partisan movement. The mission returns to Italy on 2 May and 122 men, mostly Fifteenth Air Force airmen, are also evacuated. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers strike a marshalling yard at Leghorn and a tunnel and railroad bridges in C Italy; P-47s attack rail lines, bridges and ammunition dumps NE of Rome with good results; other P-47s, P-40s and A-36s hit numerous targets, including rail lines, motor transport shop, vehicles, tanks and gun positions, in C Italy and in the US Fifth Army battle areas. XII Air Support Command is redesignated XII Tactical Air Command. Moves in Italy: HQ 332d Fighter Group and 301st Fighter Squadron from Montecorvino to Capodichino with P-39s; 486th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 340th Bombardment Group (Medium), from Gaudo Airfield to Alesan, Corsica with B-25s. SUNDAY, 16 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 31st Fighter Group with P-51s (transferred from Twelfth Air Force on 1 Apr) begins operations. It becomes the fifth operational fighter group of the Fifteenth Air Force. 432 B-17s and B-24s hit targets in Rumania and Yugoslavia; B-17s bomb the industrial area at Belgrade, Yugoslavia and an aircraft plant at Brasov, Rumania; B-24s hit marshalling yards at Brasov and Turnu Severin, Rumania; 90+ fighters fly escort while 50+ others, failing to rendezvous with the bombers, strafe trains on the Craiova line E of Turnu Severin. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s bomb approaches to Ficulle and Todi railway bridges; A-20s blast fuel supplies; P-40s, P-47s and A-36s hit the Capranica viaduct, town of Zagarolo, railway at Spigno Monferrato, marshalling yard at Orte-Terni, tunnel at Capranica and tracks, vehicles, railway cars, ammunition dump, bridge, and targets of opportunity at various points in C Italy. MONDAY, 17 APRIL 1944 ARMY AIR FORCE, MTO: 121st Liaison Squadron, AAF, MTO moves from Oran to Telergma, Algeria with L-4s and L-5s; first mission is in Sep 44. STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 470 B-17s and B-24s hit targets in Bulgaria and Yugoslavia; B-17s bomb the industrial area, air depot and marshalling yard at Belgrade, Yugoslavia; B-24s bomb the marshalling yard at Sofia, Bulgaria; 200+ fighters escort the missions; US aircraft claim 25 enemy aircraft downed in combat. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s attack bridges N of Orte and at Monte Molino, while A-20s pound a fuel dump NE of Rome; P-40, P-47 and A-36 fighter-bombers hit motor transport stores and gun positions N of Anzio, bomb Fara in Sabina station, hit tracks, trains and guns in the Orte and Narni area and at other points N of Rome. TUESDAY, 18 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, P-38s and P-47s strafe Udine and Aiello Airfields and targets of opportunity in the Basiliano, Sant' Andrea Island, and Cervignano del Friuli areas and in Golfo di Panzano; other fighters fly cover for the strafing missions. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, P-47 fighter-bombers cut several rail lines in the Florence and Arezzo areas and strafe trains and motor transport; P-40s and P-47s hit Itri and a rail bridge and fuel dumps as the campaign against communications continues. WEDNESDAY, 19 APRIL 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Bad weather severely restricts operations. In Italy, B-26s hit Cecina railroad bridge and Ancona marshalling yard while B-25s hit a marshalling yard at Piombino; P-47s hit railroad tracks, a marshalling yard, junction, and railway cars between Pontedera and Empoli and between Figline Valdarno and San Giovanni Valdarno. 487th and 498th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium), 340th Bombardment Group (Medium), move from Gaudo Airfield, Italy to Alesan, Corsica with B-25s. THURSDAY, 20 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 300+ B-17s and B-24s attack targets in Italy; the B-17s bomb marshalling yards at Ancona, Castelfranco, Padua and Vicenza and Venice harbor installations; the B-24s hit marshalling yards at Mestre, Reviso and Fano, Venice harbor, Monfalcone dockyards and Trieste; 180+ other heavy bombers dispatched against communications targets in N Italy are forced to abort due to bad weather; about 250 fighters provide cover for the bombing raids. 776th, 777th, 778th and 779th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy), 464th Bombardment Group (Heavy), move from Pantanella Airfield to Gioia, Italy with B-24s; first mission is 30 Apr. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium and light bombers score hits on a marshalling yard and 3 fuel dumps at Leghorn and near misses on Cecina and Certaldo bridges and Arezzo viaduct; fighter-bombers hit railroad lines and fuel dump in the Florence area; bridges, dump, rail lines and train cars near Civitavecchia and Zagarolo, at Sezze, near Ladispoli, SW of Stimipliano and N of Monterotondo; and guns S of Albano Laziale; in the battle area around Cassino fighter-bombers blast several gun positions and hit bridges, trucks, troops and other targets, at several points, including Falconara, Recanati, San Benedetto de Marsi, and the Fondi-Itri and Orte- Orvieto areas. HQ 57th Bombardment Wing moves from Trocchia, Italy to Ghisonaccia, Corsica. FRIDAY, 21 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 100+ B-24s bomb marshalling yards at Bucharest, Rumania; all 17 bomb groups dispatched are recalled due to bad weather but 7 groups fail to receive the recall signal; 150+ P-38s and P-51s are dispatched as escort; 40+ rendezvous with the B-24s and battle some 30 fighters that attack the bomber force; the other fighters, failing to meet the bombers, engage about 40 fighters; bombers and fighters claim 35 aerial combat victories; 10 US aircraft are shot down. HQ 464th Bombardment Group (Heavy) moves from Pantanella Airfield to Gioia, Italy. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, A-20s blast an ammunition dump while P-47s attack train, rail lines, and motor transport behind enemy lines; other P-47s, along with P-40s and A-36s, attack railway lines and trains between Rome and Terni, between Rome and Tivoli, and between Orte and Attigliano; hit a motor transport concentration NE of Rome; and attack several bivouac areas and gun positions in the battle areas. . SATURDAY, 22 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): HQ 483d Bombardment Group (Heavy) moves from Tortorella to Sterparone Airfield, Italy. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s bomb a bridge and tracks S of Ficulle and a bridge N of the town; other B-25s and B-26s attack San Stefano al Mare harbor, the N section of Orvieto, Chiusi railroad bridge, viaducts S and W of Arezzo and Bucine, Certaldo railroad bridge, bridge approaches at Incisa in Valdarno, a bridge near Siena and viaduct at Poggibonsi; A-20s hit Valmontone ammunition dump and Sonnino; P-47s hit a railroad, trains, and tunnels in the Florence area and W of Chiusi, marshalling yard at Siena, a vessel S of Savona, railroad lines S of Orte and the town of Gaeta; and P-40s attack gun positions N of the Anzio beachhead and bomb the Ferentino dump area and towns of Fondi, Terracina and Formia. SUNDAY, 23 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Weather clears and bombers can resume operations. 500+ B-17s and B-24s attack aircraft factories and airfields in Austria; the B-17s hit the Wiener Neustadt industrial area; the B-24s hit industrial areas at Schwechat and Bad Voslau and an air depot at Wiener-Neustadt; close to 300 fighters provide support; many enemy fighters attack fiercely, downing 12 bombers and 1 fighter; the bombers and escorts claim 40+ air victories. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s hit bridges and approaches at Attigliano; B-26s attack Incisa in Valdarno viaduct and bridge, Cecina marshalling yard and attack, but fail to hit, Poggibonsi viaduct; P-47s, A-36s, and P-40s hit rail lines and bridges NE of Rome and along the E coast in several areas including points around Orvieto, Orte, Tivoli and Capronica. HQ 321st Bombardment Group (Medium) and 445th and 448th Bombardment Squadrons (Medium) move from Gaudo Airfield, Italy to Solenzara, Corsica with B-25s. MONDAY, 24 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 520+ bombers attack targets in Rumania, Yugoslavia, and Italy; B-17s bomb a marshalling yard at Ploesti, Rumania, an aircraft factory in Belgrade, Yugoslavia and the Ancona-Rimini railroad line (this is the first Azon mission by 5 B-17s); the B-24s bomb marshalling yards at Ploesti and Bucharest, Rumania; 250+ fighters fly support for the bombers. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers attack railroad bridges N and S of Orvieto, at Arezzo, at Grosseto and N and S of Incisa in Valdarno; A-20s hit a dump at Valmontone; P-40s, P-47s and A-36s hit shipping off Leghorn, Avezzano station, Orvieto and Terni marshalling yards, Canino landing ground, railroad tracks at numerous points S of Orvieto and rail lines, truck parks and targets of opportunity N of Rome. TUESDAY, 25 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, around 150 B-24s bomb an aircraft factory at Turin, marshalling yard and bridge at Parma, marshalling yard at Ferrara and several targets of opportunity; 300+ B-24s and B-17s are forced to abort missions due to bad weather; 100+ fighters escort the bomber missions into N Italy. 782d Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 465th Bombardment Group (Heavy), arrives at Pantanella Airfield, Italy from the US with B-24s; first mission is 5 May. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, attacks against lines of communications N of Rome continue; A-20s hit storage areas while medium bombers attack Pesaro marshalling yard, dumps at Manoppello and bridges and approaches at Incisa in Valdarno, Arezzo, Asciano, Magra, Ficulle and Orvieto; viaducts at Incisa and Calafuria are attacked with poor results; P-40s and P-47s hit roads, gun positions, railroads, ammunition dump and trucks N of Rome, near Ficulle, Orte and Orvieto; and P-47s also damage destroyers off Elba Island. HQ 47th Bombardment Group (Light) and 84th, 85th, 86th and 97th Bombardment Squadrons (Light) move from Capodichino to Vesuvius Airfield, Italy with A-20s. 417th Night Fighter Squadron, Twelfth Air Force (attached to RAF No. 337 Wing), moves from La Senia, Algeria to Borgo, Corsica with Beaufighters; the ground echelon has been at Borgo since Feb 44. WEDNESDAY, 26 APRIL 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, bad weather greatly curtails activity; P-47s attack motor transport and railroad tracks and hit a gas dump near Trasimeno Lake, a landing ground at Canino and marshalling yards of Leghorn. THURSDAY, 27 APRIL 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, weather again severely restricts operations; P-40s attack a supply dump N of Rome, scoring 7 hits in the target area. 12th Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron, 3d Photographic Group (Reconnaissance), based at Pomigliano, Italy, sends a detachment to operate from Nettuno, Italy with F-5s. FRIDAY, 28 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Clearing weather again permits bomber operations; 450+ B-17s and B-24s attack targets in Italy; 188 B-17s bomb Piombino Steel Works and port; 168 B-24s bomb the port area at San Stefano al Mare; and 108 B-24s bomb the port area at Orbetello; P-38s, P-51s and P-47s provide escort. 32d Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron, 90th Photographic Wing (Reconnaissance), arrives at San Severo, Italy from the US with F-5s; first mission is 18 May. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers attack Piombino, railway bridges N of Orvieto, Ficulle, and W of Arezzo, and hit viaducts at Incisa in Valdarno and Piteccio; A-20s score hits on a fuel dump; P-40s and P-47s hit a fuel dump NW of Ferentino, warehouses S of Avezzano, several railway lines and targets of opportunity N of Rome, the Orbetello railroad yards, San Stefano al Mare harbor, rail lines at points between Rome and Avezzano, several gun emplacements, Follonica and Chiusi marshalling yards, and cut railroad lines at several points NW of Rome; fighter-bombers also hit Chiusi marshalling yard, tracks around Castiglione della Valle, Cortona marshalling yard, Grosseto railroad bridge, scattered motor transport and a barge near Follonica. SATURDAY, 29 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): The 484th Bombardment Group (Heavy) with B-24s is declared operational, the 18th operational group. 573 B-17s and B-24s, with fighter escort, attack the Toulon, France naval base and 5 B-17s attack the Rimini-Ancona railroad (second Azon mission). TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s attack the Terni viaduct and Attigliano railway bridge, while B-26s bomb bridges and bridge approaches at Pontassieve and Incisa in Valdarno; A-20s attack a dump NE of Rome; P-40s and P-47s cut rail lines in many places NE of Rome, hit guns N of Anzio and a dump SE of Rome, attack the town of Acquapendente, hit approaches and tunnel S of Arezzo and bridge and trucks in the area, bomb Sinalunga marshalling yard and bridge and approaches at Monte San Savino, and hit docks at San Vincenzo and boats at Follonica. 446th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 321st Bombardment Group (Medium), moves from Gaudo Airfield, Italy to Solenzara, Corsica with B-25s. SUNDAY, 30 APRIL 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 464th Bombardment Group (Heavy) with B-24s becomes the 19th operational bomb group. Around 500 bombers, with fighter escort, attack targets in Italy; B-17s hit industrial areas at Milan and Varese and the Reggio Emilia air depot; the B-24s bomb marshalling yards at Alessandria and Milan. HQ 485th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and 828th, 829th, 830th and 831st Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy) arrive at Venosa, Italy from the US with B-24s; first mission is 10 May. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s attack railroad bridges at Ficulle, N Orvieto and Marsciano, while B-26s hit bridges at Cortona and Incisa in Valdarno and in the nearby areas; P-40s hit rail lines and storage in many locations N of Rome, hit rail lines and a radar station in the Orvieto area, cut railroads from Rome to Tivoli and to Civita Castellana and hit targets of opportunity in the area; P-47s hit numerous railroad lines, rail cars, and other targets N of Rome. Unit moves in Italy: HQ 86th Fighter-Bomber Group and 525th, 526th, and 527th Fighter-Bomber Squadrons from Pomigliano to Marcianise with P-40s; 85th Fighter Squadron, 79th Fighter Group, from Capodichino to Pomigliano with P-47s.

MAY 1944 - MEDITERRANEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS (MTO)

MONDAY, 1 MAY 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers attack bridges at Albinia Station, NW of Chiusi, in and near Grosseto, near Monte Molino, Calafuria and at Pontedera; also attacked are a viaduct at Monte Catellana and marshalling yards at Florence/Campo di Marte and Florence, with particularly good results at Florence; light bombers hit an ammunition dump at Fara in Sabina; P-40s and P-47s hit rail tracks in the Rome area, Priverno Station, guns N of Anzio, dumps at Frascati, stations at Colleferro and Frosinone, tracks at Orbetello and Orvieto, a bridge and tunnel N of Todi, a road in Canino, a dump and factory at Stimigliono, vessels E of Piombino, a factory E of Cecina, bridge approaches at Grosseto and Arezzo, a dump at Grosseto and a tunnel at Rignano sull Arno; and HQ 79th Fighter Group and 86th and 87th Fighter Squadrons move from Capodichino to Pomigliano with P-47s. TUESDAY, 2 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 250+ bombers hit targets in Italy; B-17s hit the marshalling yard at Bolzano; B-24s, most with fighter escort, attack Castel Maggiore and a railroad bridge at Faenza; 300+ bombers are forced to abort because of weather. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, attacks against rail lines and bridges in N Italy continue; medium bombers bomb an approach to a bridge in N Oriveto, bridges in S Ficulle and in Marsciano, and marshalling yards in Florence/Campo di Marte and W and NW Florence; light bombers hit an ammunition dump NE of Rome; P-40s and P-47s hit rail lines N of Rome, bridges SW of Rome, guns N of Anzio, a road at Montefiascone, a road bridge at Cecina, trucks and planes at Malignano landing ground and several other dumps, roads, and rail lines in N Italy. WEDNESDAY, 3 MAY 1944 ARMY AIR FORCE, MTO: 16th Reconnaissance Squadron (Heavy, Special), AAF, MTO, moves from Foch Field, Tunisia to Foggia, Italy with B-17s; a detachment is operating from Borgo, Corsica. The 16th serves as a radar detection and countermeasures unit in the MTO. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s and B-26s pound railway bridges at Monte Molino, Orvieto, and Taggia, bridge approaches at Ficulle and Imperia, and Ventimiglia marshalling yards; A-20s attack ammunition dumps; P-40s and P-47s attack rail lines, bridge, dump, guns and buildings in the battle area and score 4 direct hits on an observation post S of Cassino; vessels and docks at Civitavecchia and Montalto di Castro and road bridges and rail lines in the area; town of Fondi and rail lines and bridges nearby; railway bridges at Foligno, Sant'Elpidio a Mare and Grosseto; viaduct at Terni; and numerous vehicles, dumps, railroads, vessels, and other targets in the battle areas and in N Italy; and 447th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 321st Bombardment Group (Medium), moves from Gaudo Airfield to Solenzara, Corsica with B-25s. THURSDAY, 4 MAY 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, main effort again is against lines of communications; medium bombers hit bridges, tracks and marshalling yards; P-40s, A-36s and P-47s hit rail lines in and around Priverno, guns and radar station N of Anzio, railroad cars, rail lines, and bridge in the Orte-Attigliano and Orte-Narni areas, motor transport and stores E of Frascati, marshalling yards at Colleferro and Follonica, and trucks and personnel on the Fondi-Pico road; vessels at Leghorn and numerous railroad targets at scattered points are attacked. Flight of the 5th Combat Mapping Squadron, 3d Photographic Group (Reconnaissance), operating from San Severo, Italy returns to base at Pomigliano, Italy with F-5s. FRIDAY, 5 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 465th Bombardment Group (Heavy) with B-24s becomes operational, making a total of 20 heavy bomber groups operational in the Fifteenth Air Force. 640+ bombers (the largest force to date) attack targets in Rumania and Yugoslavia; the B-17s hit marshalling yards at Ploesti/Campina and Brasnov, Rumania; the B-24s hit the marshalling yard at Ploesti and troop concentrations at Podgoricu, Yugoslavia; fighters fly 240+ sorties in support. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, A-20s bomb a supply dump W of Albano Laziale; XII Tactical Air Command A-36s, P-47s and P-40s fly 24 missions cutting rail lines N and NE of Rome, and hitting guns N of the Anzio beachhead and N of Gaeta and a dump near Frascati; bridges at Orvieto and W of Lake Bolsena are damaged by direct hits, a barge at San Stefano al Mare is hit, several trucks destroyed or damaged, rail lines are cut in several places near Sesti Bagni and aircraft are hit at the Canino landing ground. A flight of the 5th Combat Mapping Squadron, 3d Photographic Group (Reconnaissance), operating from San Severo, Italy returns to base at Pomigliano, Italy with F-5s. SATURDAY, 6 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): About 300 B-17s and B-24s, escorted by P-51s and P-38s, hit targets in Rumania; the B-17s attack an aircraft factory at Brasov and marshalling yard at Turnu Severin; the B-24s bomb Ploesti/Campina marshalling yard and an aircraft factory at Brasov. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, A-20s pound a storage area at Itri; A-36s hit rail lines in the Viterbo area; P 40s hit guns, tracks and railroad station in and around Frosinone, and rail lines, stations, roads and town area in and near Itri, Colleferro and Sezze; P-47s hit Certaldo marshalling yard and numerous railroad and highway targets, including several bridges; and HQ 324th Fighter Group and 314th Fighter Squadron move from Cercola to Pignataro Maggiore with P-40s. SUNDAY, 7 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 420+ B-17s and B-24s bomb targets in Rumania and Yugoslavia; the B-17s and B-24s hit marshalling yards at Bucharest, Rumania and 38 B-17s also hit a railroad bridge at Belgrade, Yugoslavia; 62 P-51s escort heavy bombers to the target and 53 provide withdrawal escort; 84 P-38s fly target cover. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, weather remains poor and precludes medium bomber operations; A-20s hit a dump SW of Albano Laziale; fighter-bombers hit communications, especially roads, with excellent results; roads, motor transports, trains, gun positions, bridges, tracks, marshalling yards, harbor areas and other targets are attacked in areas around Stimigliano, Vetralla, Viterbo, Bracciano, Anzio, Manziana, Acquapendente, Civitavecchia, Terracina, Rome and Elba Island. MONDAY, 8 MAY 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, fighter-bombers hit roads and railroads N of Rome, a supply dump N of Anzio beachhead, and the station at Colleferro; numerous trucks and railroad cars are destroyed and many troops killed; Attacks against rolling stock on the Rome-Orte rail line are especially effective; HQ 62d Troop Carrier Group and 4th, 7th and 8th Troop Carrier Squadrons move from Ponte Olivo, Sicily to Gaudo Airfield (4th Troop Carrier Squadron is operating from bases in India); and 524th Fighter- Bomber Squadron, 27th Fighter-Bomber Group, moves from Castel Volturno to Santa Maria with P-40s. TUESDAY, 9 MAY 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26s hit Incisa in Valdarno railroad bridge and viaduct while A-20s attack fuel dumps; fighter- bombers again blast roads and railroads and other targets at various locations N of Rome, including Lake Bolsena, Civitavecchia, Colleferro, Civita Castellana, Orte and San Giovanni Valdarno; HQ 87th Fighter Wing moves from Bastia to Vescovato, Corsica; 111th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, 68th Tactical Reconnaissance Group, attached to XII Tactical Air Command, moves from Pomigliano to Santa Maria with F-6s; and 522d and 523d Fighter- Bomber Squadrons, 27th Fighter-Bomber Group, moves from Castel Volturno to Santa Maria with A-36s and P-40s. WEDNESDAY, 10 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 485th Bombardment Group (Heavy) with B-24s is declared operational, giving the Fifteenth Air Force its planned operational strength of 21 bomber groups. The 52d Fighter Group with P-51s also begins operations with the Fifteenth on this date, making a total of 6 fighter groups. Around 400 bombers attack targets at Wiener Neustadt Austria; B-17s bomb aviation industry targets; B-24s bomb the industrial area and an air depot; 200+ fighters provide support; 300+ bombers are forced to abort due to bad weather which has halted operations for the past few days; opposition is fierce; 21 bombers and 1 fighter are lost; US aircraft claim 50 aircraft. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, weather permits medium bomber operations for first time in several days; B-25s hit bridges near San Giovanni Valdarno, Orvieto and Monte Molino, and the Terni viaduct; B-26s attack bridges W of Arezzo; fighter-bombers continue attacks on roads and railroads N of Rome; targets in the areas of Avezzano, Civitavecchia, Furbara, Terni, Todi, Orvieto, Manciano, Perugia, Monte San Savino and La Saezia, and near Rome are attacked. Units moving from Cercola to Pignataro Maggiore, Italy with P-40s: 99th Fighter Squadron, 332d Fighter Group, attached to 324th Fighter Group: 315th and 316th Fighter Squadrons, 324th Fighter Group. THURSDAY, 11 MAY 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers, hampered by weather, attack Portoferraio, bridges near Orvieto and Ficulle, tracks at Piombino, viaduct at Poggibonsi and bridges at Certaldo and Signa; fighter- bombers hit Fondi, rail lines NE of Rome, Littoria Airfield, rail facilities in the Perugia area, barge, harbor area, and factory in the Portoferraio area, and tracks near Castiglione d'Orcia; other fighter-bombers attack numerous positions along the main front as the US Fifth and British Eighth Armies begin an assault through the Gustav Line and the drive toward Rome. 414th Night Fighter Squadron, 63d Fighter Wing, based at Elmas, Sardinia, sends a detachment to Alghero, Sardinia with Beaufighters; other detachments are at Borgo and Ghisonaccia, Corsica. FRIDAY, 12 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, around 730 B-17s and B-24s (largest force to date) attack German HQ at Massa d'Albe and Monte Soratte; town of Civitavecchia; airfields at Tarquinia and in the surrounding area; marshalling yards at Chivasso, Piombino, Marina di Carrara, Viareggio and Ferrara; Orbetello Island; Piombino harbor; docks and communications at San Stefano al Mare ; harbor, marshalling yard and railroad bridge at Chiavari; La Spesia marshalling yard and harbor; and several targets of opportunity; 25 P-38s strafe Piacenza Airfield; other fighters fly 250+ sorties in support of bombing missions. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, A-20s blast command posts along the main battlefront as Allied ground forces seek to break through the Gustav Line; medium bombers hit a concentration near Fondi, attack forces at Vallecorsa and Pastena and bomb numerous positions along the main front; fighter-bombers pound command posts, guns, bridges, road and rail traffic and troops along the assault front and in the rear areas, concentrating especially on the Monte Cassino Benedictine Abbey and surrounding area. SATURDAY, 13 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, bombers continue interdiction in support of the ground forces. 670+ B-17s and B-24s mostly with fighter escort, attack marshalling yards at Trento, Bronzola, Fidenza, Piacenza, Faenza, Imola, Cesena, Modena, Parma, San Rufillo, Borgo San Lorenzo, Castel Maggiore and Bologna and hit railroad bridges at Bolzano and Avisio; and fighters sweep the Bologna-Modena area. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium, light and fighter-bombers continue to attack lines of communications but devote the main effort to support of the Allied ground forces push against the Gustav Line (French Expeditionary Force with US Fifth Army gains a spectacular breakthrough by a fierce assault); A-20s hit a command post; B-26s damage Cortona, Certaldo, Signa and Montepescali bridges; B-25s blast towns in the rear of the battleline with good results at Pastena, Pico, Vallecorsa and Itri; and fighter-bombers carry out armed reconnaissance and scheduled attacks against communications, road and rail traffic and gun positions along the immediate battleline and in areas around Esperia, Pico, Sant' Oliva, Pignataro Interamna, Arce, Fondi, Perugia, Todi, Spoleto, Terni, Orvieto, Chiusi, Rieti and N of Rome. SUNDAY, 14 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Just over 700 bombers attack targets in Italy; B-17s hit marshalling yards at Ferrara and Mantua and an air depot at Piacenza; B-24s hit Vicenza marshalling yard and air depots at Piacenza and Reggio Emilia; fighters fly 170+ sorties in escort; 48 P-38s strafe Aviano and Villaorba airfields. HQ 52d Fighter Group and 4th and 5th Fighter Squadrons move from Corsica to Madna Airfield, Italy with P-51s. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, support for the Allied ground assault into the Gustav Line continues as aircraft hit at lines of communications N and NW of Rome and blast targets in the immediate battle area; medium bombers claim hits on bridges, bridge approaches, and viaducts at Chiani, Marsciano, Monte Molino. Castiglione d'Orcia, San Giovanni Valdarno, Poggibonsi, Tabianello and Arezzo; A-20s pound command posts in the battle area; fighter-bombers hit stations, tracks, roads, town areas, bridges, gun positions and targets of opportunity in the immediate battle area and in or near Esperia, Terni, Narni, Itri, Terracina, Perugia, Chiusi, Orvieto, San Giovanni Valdarno, Maranola and other locations N of Rome. MONDAY, 15 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Weather cancels all operations except fighter a sweep over the Toulon-Marseille, France area. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium and light bombers again hit communications lines N and NW of the front while fighter-bombers in close support of the Allied ground assault through the Gustav Line blast gun positions, motor transport, ammunition supplies, bridges, rolling stock and other military targets in the battle area; medium and light bombers also hit harbors and vessels along coasts at Piombino, Talamone, Portoferraio and Ancona. TUESDAY, 16 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 2d Fighter Squadron, 52d Fighter Group, moves from Corsica to Madna Airfield, Italy with P-51s. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers attack railroad bridges and a tunnel in C Italy; light bombers blast guns in Roccasecca while fighter-bombers and fighters just behind enemy lines seek out motor transport targets, crater roads and hit bridges, harassing the already strained communications network, while US Fifth Army troops push rapidly W and NW and British Eighth Army forces push through the last defenses of the Gustav Line in an effort to isolate Cassino, a joint effort by British 13 Corps and Polish 2 Corps. WEDNESDAY, 17 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 450+ bombers hit targets in Italy and Yugoslavia; the B-17s bomb the marshalling yard at Ancona, Italy and troop concentrations at Bihac, Yugoslavia; the B-24s bomb the port areas at San Stefano al Mare, Piombino, Portoferraio and Orbetello, Italy; P-38s strafe airfields at Ghedi, Villafranca di Verona, Modena, Forli and Reggio Emilia, Italy while other fighters fly 130+ sorties of escort duty. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, operations continue in support of the Allied ground assault; B-26s bomb road bridges in the immediate battle area with generally fair results; roads are blocked in Frosinone; B-25s bomb the landing ground at Viterbo while A-20s bomb a command post near Valmontone and drop supplies to French troops on Monte Revole; fighter-bombers hit railroads, bridges, trucks, and gun positions behind and along the battle front with good results, destroying or severely damaging 6 bridges, creating road blocks in the towns of Vallecorsa and Pico, blasting gun emplacements at Cassino and hitting numerous targets of opportunity. THURSDAY, 18 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Almost 450 bombers, mostly with fighter escort, hit targets in Rumania and Yugoslavia; both B-17s and B-24s bomb the industrial area at Ploesti, Rumania and the marshalling yard at Belgrade, Yugoslavia; the B-17s also hit the marshalling yard at Nis, Yugoslavia; 300+ other bombers abandon the missions because of bad weather; fighters strafe airfields at Nis and Scutari, Yugoslavia. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers continue to hit rail bridges, bombing farther into the N of Italy and thus putting more pressure on the strained German communications system; light bombers hit storage areas; fighter-bombers continue close support to Allied ground forces, hitting town areas, roads, enemy positions, railroads and numerous other targets in the battle area, including points in or around Pico, Pontecorvo. Fondi, Terracina, Ceccano, Pastena, San Giovanni Valdarno, Perugia, Terni, Spoleto, Sant' Elpidio a Mare, Pedaso and N of Rome, as the British Eighth Army completes the reduction of the Gustav Line in the Liri River Valley with the capture of Cassino, while the US Fifth Army takes Formia. FRIDAY, 19 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 500+ bombers hit communications targets, ports, and oil storage in NE, C, and, W Italy; B-17s hit oil storage facilities at Porto Marghera and railroad bridges at Casarea, Latisana and Rimini; B-24s hit port areas at La Spezia and Leghorn; fighters fly 250+ sorties in support. These operations are notable for the absence of enemy fighter opposition. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers hit railroad bridges in NC Italy while light bombers bomb an ammunition dump; fighter-bombers continue support to Allied forces advancing rapidly N and W, blasting the road network in the battle area and hitting motor transport, bridges, town areas, and targets of opportunity, in areas around San Giovanni Valdarno, Pastena, Vallecorsa, Terracina, Fondi, Pistoia and elsewhere. SATURDAY, 20 MAY 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, weather prevents operations by medium and light bombers; fighter-bombers continue to hit communications and gun positions in the battle area; areas in and around Vallecorsa and Terracina are hit especially hard; fighters maintain patrols and reconnaissance, destroying or damaging numerous vehicles between Pisa and Pistoia. SUNDAY, 21 MAY 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In NC Italy, medium bombers are restricted by bad weather but bomb a few bridges and roads, while light bombers hit a bivouac area; fighter-bombers continue support of ground forces, hitting troops, vehicles, roads and railroads in or near the battle areas, particularly around Sezze, Ceccano, San Giovanni Valdarno and Pontecorvo. MONDAY, 22 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): As weather again clears, 550+ bombers attack communications and military targets in C and NW Italy; B-17s bomb the marshalling yard at Avezzano; B-24s hit port areas at Fano, Porto Civitanova and La Spezia; fighters fly 200+ sorties in escort to bombers; there is no fighter opposition. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): 332d Fighter Group with P-47s is transferred to the Fifteenth Air Force; this move, following a series of reassignments of fighter groups to the Fifteenth Air Force and to India, leaves the XII Fighter Command with only 1 fighter group. In Italy, medium bombers are inactive or abortive except for a raid on Cave; fighter-bombers maintain close support of the ground advance, hitting at motor transport, roads, and bridges in the battle areas and nearby points in C Italy, including Terracina, Ceccano, Sezze, Bastia, points between Rome and Bracciano Lake and near Balsorano. TUESDAY, 23 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, 300+ B-17s and B-24s concentrate attacks on troop concentrations and communications in the rear of the battle area, at Avezzano, Subiaco, Valmontone, Marino, Nemi and Grottaferrata; P-38s and P-51s provide escort; other P-38s, covered by P-47s, strafe the airfield at Ferrara. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers abort missions because of weather; light bombers hit communications between Cisterna di Roma and Campoleone; fighter-bombers actively support the general offensive of Allied ground forces in the Liri Valley and at Anzio where US and British forces break out of the beachhead; fighters on armed reconnaissance join in the attacks and numerous enemy vehicles, gun positions, transport routes and personnel are hit hard in areas in and around Terracina, Littoria, Norma, Marcigliana, Fara in Sabina, Borghetto, Arezzo and Civita Castellena; and a marshalling yard on the Empoli-Siena line is also hit. WEDNESDAY, 24 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 620+ bombers attack targets in targets in Austria and Italy; B-17s bomb the Avisio, Italy railroad viaduct and Atzgersdorf, Austria aircraft components factory; B-24s bomb airfields at Wollersdorf, Bad Voslau, Graz and Munchendorf, Austria; escorting fighters fly 250+ sorties; enemy fighter opposition is especially heavy against the B-24s attacking Bad Voslau, downing 6 heavy bombers. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium, light and fighter-bombers fly numerous sorties in support of the rapidly advancing ground forces and in attacks against rail lines, bridges and roads in NC Italy; medium bombers hit at least 5 bridges, create several road blocks and cause havoc in communications to the N of the battle area; light bombers blast a bivouac area; fighter-bombers have great success in attacks on motor transports, mainly in the battle area, and in conjunction with RAF aircraft destroy 300+ and damage as many more. THURSDAY, 25 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 340+ bombers attack targets in France and Italy; B-17s attack the marshalling yard at Lyon, France; B-24s attack marshalling yards at Amberieux, Toulon and Givors, France, and in Italy, the port area at Monfalcone, airfield at Piancenza and industrial area at Porto Marghera; P-38s and P-51s fly 200+ sorties in support. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): Twelfth Air Force has it's most active day to date against enemy forces in Italy; some medium bombers continue to pound bridges in NC Italy, damaging several bridges and viaducts, while others join light and fighter-bombers in close support of ground troops in the battle area and behind enemy lines; motor transport N and S of Rome and N of Anzio is hit hard by the air attacks; US Fifth Army achieves a solid front with junction of VI Corps (Anzio force) and II Corps (advancing along W coast) during the morning near Borgo Grappa. FRIDAY, 26 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Almost 700 bombers hit targets in France and Yugoslavia; B-17s bomb the marshalling yard at St Etienne, France; B-24s hit a bridge over the Var River, marshalling yards at Lyon/ Vaise, Lyon/Mouche, Chambery, Grenoble and Nice, France and troop concentrations at Bihac, Yugoslavia; fighters escort the bombers and strafe and dive-bomb the airfield at Donji Zemunik, Yugoslavia. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers hit railway targets in the Florence area and bomb roads in the battle area with good results; light bombers hit Frascati; other medium bombers join fighter- bombers in an assault against motor transport achieving wide-spread enemy vehicle destruction, especially on the Rome-Bracciano road over which the enemy is pouring reinforcements S toward the battle area. SATURDAY, 27 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Almost 700 bombers hit France; B-17s bomb the marshalling yard at Avignon; B-24s bomb airfields at Montpellier and Salon and marshalling yards at Nimes, Marseille/St Charles and Marseille/La Blancharde; escort is provided by P-38s and P-51s. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers concentrate their efforts against lines of communications in the Orvieto area; A-20s bomb a storage area; fighter-bombers pound a much reduced flow of motor transport behind enemy lines and hit railroads, gun positions, bridges, and targets of opportunity and behind the battle area, hitting targets at Subiaco, Sora, Tivoli, Frosinone, Capena, and Orvieto, W of Bracciano Lake, between Sulmona and San Benedetto de Marsi and at several other points. SUNDAY, 28 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, 100+ B-24s bomb Genoa harbor and Vercelli marshalling yard and troop concentrations at Niksic, Yugoslavia. In Yugoslavia, P-38s fly fighter sweeps against airfields in the Kurilovec area and vehicles, communications lines and targets of opportunity in the Knin-Bihac-Banjaluka area. HQ 332d Fighter Group and 301st and 302d Fighter Squadrons move from Capodichino to Ramitelli Airfield, Italy with P-47s. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers hit bridges, viaducts, and railroad lines at several locations in C Italy, including Narni, Cortana, Terni, Ladispoli, Torrita di Siena, Magnano, Recco, Arezzo, Rapallo, Vado, Bucine, and Castiglion Fiorentino; light bombers hit an ammunition dump while fighter-bombers continue close support to advancing ground forces, encountering considerably less enemy motor transport behind lines because of the heavy attrition of recent days; many roads, railroads and bridges are hit as well as numerous other targets along the battlefront which now stretches from the W coast SW of Carroceto to the NE almost to Valmontone, then SW to just above Sezze, and from there ambles E to NE to the E coast below Pescara. MONDAY, 29 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 829 bombers (largest number of bombers completing attacks in a single day up to this time) bomb targets in Austria and Yugoslavia; B-17s and B-24s attack an aircraft factory at Wollesdorf, Austria; B-24s also attack industrial areas at Wiener Neustadt and Atzgersdorf, Austria and troop concentrations at Poderica, Yugoslavia. P-38s and P-51s escort the Austrian missions while P-38s accompany B-24s to Yugoslav targets and afterwards strafe numerous targets of opportunity; fighter opposition over Yugoslavia is negligible but around 150 fighters attempt interception over Austria, principally in the Wiener-Neustadt area; 23 AAF aircraft are lost; the bombers and fighters claim 60+ fighters shot down. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-25s bomb rail bridges near Bucine and at Poggibonsi and Lisciano; B-26s hit viaducts at Terni and near Stifone, railroad junction and marshalling yard at Terentola, Castiglion Fiorentino bridge, the Voltri shipyards and a bridge nearby; A-20s hit troops in bivouac and bomb a supply dump; fighter-bombers continue to blast motor transport between the battlelines and Rome; and C-47s evacuate 400+ wounded from the Anzio area. TUESDAY, 30 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Nearly 500 bombers attack targets in Austria and Yugoslavia; B-17s attack the marshalling yard at Zagreb, Yugoslavia; B-24s attack aircraft factories at Wels, Ebreichadorf, Pottendorf, Neudorfl and Neunkirchen, Austria; P-38s and P-51s provide escort and many of the fighters strafe targets of opportunity in areas around Zut, Brod, Susak, Bihac, Medak, and along the Karlovac-Livno road, Yugoslavia. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26s and B-25s destroy or damage 10 bridges, bridge approaches and viaducts which affect supply routes to the battlefronts across C Italy; light and fighter-bombers blast motor transports and gun positions in the battle area and hit targets in and around towns in the area, including Guidonia, Ariccia, Alatri and Veroli; and C-47s evacuate wounded from Nettuno. WEDNESDAY, 31 MAY 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 480+ B-17s and B-24s bomb oil refineries and communications targets in the Ploesti, Rumania area; fighters fly 200+ sorties in support; 15 bombers are lost to flak and fighters; 40+ enemy aircraft are shot down. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers of the 42d and 57th Bombardment Wings give close support to ground forces in fierce fighting S of Rome, hitting numerous troop concentrations, roads and town areas, including points in or near Albano Laziale, Genzano di Roma, Ariccia, Frascati, Civitella Roveta, Subiaco, Cave, Nettuno and Grottaferrata; XII Tactical Air Command A-20s and fighter-bombers blast targets in the same general area, hitting troops, bridges, supplies, guns and vehicles at or near Rocca di Papa, Ariccia, Marino, Frascati, Grottaferrata, Lanuvio, Montalto di Castro and Manciano; and C-47s evacuate casualties from Anzio.

JUNE 1944 - MEDITERRANEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS (MTO)

THURSDAY, 1 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): HQ 464th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and 776th, 777th, 778th and 779th Bombardment Squadrons (Heavy) move from Gioia to Pantanell Airfield, Italy with B-24s. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium, light and fighter-bombers continue support of ground troops, striking concentrations, bivouac areas, motor transport, railways and roads, bridges, trains and other targets; fighters fly sweeps over the battle areas, escort medium bombers and carry out sweeps along the E coast; 345th Fighter Squadron, 350th Fighter Group, moves from Sardinia to Pomigliano with P-39s; and during Jun, HQ 64th Fighter Wing moves from Frattamaggiore to Orbetello. FRIDAY, 2 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Shuttle-bombing between Italy and the USSR (Operation FRANTIC) is started. Under command of Lieutenant General Ira C Eaker, 130 B-17s, escorted by 70 P-51s, bomb the marshalling yard at Debreczen, Hungary and land in the Soviet Union-the B-17s at Poltava and Mirgorod, the P-51s at Piryatin. 1 B-17 is lost over the target; 27 other B-17s, forced off course en route to the Oradea, Rumania marshalling yard, also hit Debreczen. Nearly 400 other B-24s attack marshalling yards at Szeged, Miskolc and Szolnok, Hungary and Simeria, Rumania. P-51s and P-38s provide escort. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers attack road and rail bridges from N of the battle area just below Rome to areas N of Rome; fighter-bombers continue to blast motor transport, railways, trains, command posts, roads, and bridges in the battle area, having particularly good success against vehicles. SATURDAY, 3 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Bad weather drastically curtails operations. In Yugoslavia, 36 B-24s bomb the waterfront area of Omis and 38 hit the port area and W part of Split. Fighters sent to strafe targets of opportunity in the target areas abandon the mission because of low clouds over the targets. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers pound bridges in C Italy, further damaging the enemy's communications system; fighter-bombers continue close support of embattled ground forces immediately S of Rome and attack several bridges N of the city to hinder a possible withdrawal of enemy forces; light bombers attack ammunition and fuel dumps. SUNDAY, 4 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 550+ B-17s and B-24s attack communications in NW Italy and on both sides of the Franco-Italian frontier. In France, B-17s hit the Antheor railroad viaduct and Var River railroad bridges. In Italy, B-24s hit the marshalling yards at Genoa, Turin, Savona and Novi Ligure, the viaduct at Recco, and the railroad bridges at Orelle and Gad. Fighters fly 200+ sorties in support of the heavy bombers. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers hit railroad bridges in NC Italy; fighter-bombers concentrate on motor transport on roads N of Rome over which the enemy is retreating as US Fifth Army columns converge on the city amidst an enthusiastic welcome by the populace; a record number of 600+ motor transport are claimed destroyed and almost as many more damaged by AAF and Royal Air Force (RAF) units of the Mediterranean Allied Tactical Air Force (MATAF). MONDAY, 5 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): In Italy, 440+ B-17s and B-24s hit targets; B-17s hit railroad bridges at Pioppi and Vado; and B-24s hit marshallying yards at Bologna, Castel Maggiore, Forli, Ferrara, Faenza and 4 railroad bridges; P-38s and P-51s fly escort; 53 P-38s strafe Ferrara and Poggio Renatico Airfields and 40 strafe and dive-bomb airfields at Bologna and Reggio Emilia. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers pound road bridges just N of the forces retreating from Rome while fighter-bombers continue attacks against motor transport, railway lines and roads in the battle areas and N of Rome, destroying many vehicles and train cars, and scoring numerous hits on bridges, tracks, and roads, as most of the US Fifth Army assault forces cross the Tiber River in pursuit of the enemy and British Eighth Army forces E of Rome prepare to advance astride the Tiber River against Terni and Rieti. TUESDAY, 6 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Shuttlebombing (Operation FRANTIC) continues as 104 B-17s and 42 P-51s (having flown to the USSR from Italy on 2 Jun) attack the airfield at Galati, Rumania and return to Soviet shuttle bases; 8 enemy fighters are shot down and 2 P-51s are lost. 570+ other bombers, with fighter escort, hit targets from bases in Italy, i.e., in Yugoslavia, B-17s hit the Belgrade marshalling yard and Turnu-Severin canal installations, and in Rumania, B-24s hit Ploesti oil refineries and the marshalling yard at Brasov. 100th Fighter Squadron, 332d Fighter Group, moves from Capodichino to Ramitelli Airfield, Italy with P-47s. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium, light and fighter-bombers, and fighters all hit communications lines N of Rome to slow the enemy retreat; bridges, road junctions, rail lines, roads, and motor transport are continually attacked throughout the day, as British Eighth Army forces W of the Tiber River reach Civita Castellana and US Fifth Army forces push N and W toward Viterbo and Civitavecchia; HQ 324th Fighter Group and 314th Fighter Squadron move from Pignataro Maggiore to Le Banca Airfield with P-40s; 111th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, XII Tactical Air Command, moves from Santa Maria to Nettuno with F-6s; and 523d Fighter Squadron, 27th Fighter Group, moves from Santa Maria to Le Banca Airfield with P-47s. WEDNESDAY, 7 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): The Fifteenth Air Force reaches its planned operational strength of 21 heavy bomber groups and 7 fighter groups as the 332d Fighter Group begins operations with P-47s. In Italy, 340 B-17s and B-24s, some with fighter cover, hit Leghorn dock and harbor installations, Voltri shipyards, Savona railroad junction, and Vado Ligure marshalling yard; 42 P-38s bomb the Recco viaduct and 32 P-47s fly an uneventful sweep over the Fenara-Bologna area. In France, the Antheor viaduct and Var River bridge are hit. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, weather hampers medium bomber operation but several rail and road bridges and viaducts are attacked; fighter-bombers blast retreating motor transport and troops, and hit bridges N of Rome; numerous vehicles are destroyed immediately N of Rome and especially in the Subiaco area near Rome; many hits are scored on roads and railroads, and several railroad cars and gun emplacements are destroyed; the US Fifth Army captures Civitavecchia; 315th and 316th Fighter Squadrons, 324th Fighter Group, move from Pignataro Maggiore to Le Banca Airfield with P-40s; and 522d and 524th Fighter Squadrons, 27th Fighter Group, move from Santa Maria to Le Banca Airfield with P-47s. THURSDAY, 8 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 52 B-17s, with P-47 escort, bomb the navy yard and drydocks at Pola, Yugoslavia. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, weather again restricts activity; many medium bomber missions are abortive, though several bridges, railroad lines, and guns are attacked; A-20s hit the town of Bolsena and targets in the surrounding areas; fighter-bombers and fighters continue to patrol battle areas destroying motor transport, and attacking train cars, roads, rail lines, and enemy concentrations, as the US Fifth Army approaches Viterbo and the British Eighth Army pushes toward Orvieto. FRIDAY, 9 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Around 500 B-17s and B-24s attack targets in Germany and Italy; B-17s hit the industrial area and air depot at Munich, Germany; B-24s also hit the industrial area and ordinance depot at Munich and oil storage at Porto Marghera, Italy; P-47s, P-38s and P-51s fly 250+ sorties in support of the Munich raids; the bombers and fighters claim 30+ aircraft destroyed; 13 AAF aircraft are lost. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers again hit enemy communications, bombing bridges with good results; light bombers hit targets of opportunity in the Acquapendente area; fighter-bombers and fighters continue to pound motor transport retreating up the Italian peninsula, and to bomb roads and railways in the path of the enemy retreat, as the US Fifth Army reaches Viterbo, where the British Eighth Army shortly makes contact with it; and 86th Bombardment Squadron (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light), moves from Vesuvious Airfield to Ponte Galeria with A-20s. SATURDAY, 10 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 550+ B-17s and B-24s attack targets in Italy; B-17s hit a marshalling yard at Mestre and oil storage and marshalling yard at Porto Marghera; B-24s hit oil refinery at Trieste, air depot at Ferrara and the town of Ancona. P-51s and P-38s fly escort, and in Rumania, strafe targets of opportunity between Bucharest and the Danube River and S of Craiova, and dive-bomb an oil refinery at Ploesti. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers attack bridges, railroads, and roads N, NE, and NW of Rome; light bombers hit motor transport in the town of Arcidosso; fighter-bombers and fighters bomb and strafe motor transport and roads N of the battle area, destroying numerous vehicles, especially along the roads between Rome and Vetralla; in ground action the Indian 4 Division takes Pescara and Chieti, while the New Zealand 2 Division reaches Avezzano E of Rome; HQ XII Bomber Command is disbanded in Corsica; HQ 47th Bombardment Group (Light) and 84th Bombardment Squadron (Light) move from Vesuvius Airfield to Ponte Galeria with A-20s. SUNDAY, 11 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 126 B-17s and 60 P-51s depart Russian shuttle bases for Italy to complete the first FRANTIC operation. On the way 121 B-17s bomb the Focsani, Rumania airfield; 1 B-l7 is lost. 540+ other B-17s and B-24s attack targets in Rumania and Yugoslavia; the B-17s attack the Smederevo, Yugoslavia marshalling yard; the B-24s attack oil installations at Constanta and Giurpiu, Rumania (both raids having fighter escorts); the AAF claims 60 aircraft destroyed during the days missions. 99th Fighter Squadron, 332d Fighter Group (attached to 86th Fighter Group, Twelfth Air Force), moves from Pignataro to Ciampino, Italy with P-47s. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, weather cancels all light and medium bomber operations; fighter-bombers and fighters operating on a reduced scale, hit vehicles, roads, and bridges N of the battleline which the US Fifth Army's VI Corps has extended 95 mi (153 km) N of Rome; HQ 79th Fighter Group and 85th, 86th and 87th Fighter Squadrons move from Pomigliano to Corsica with P-47s; 111th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, XII Tactical Air Command, moves from Nettuno to Galera with F-6s; 415th Night Fighter Squadron, 64th Fighter Wing, moves from Pomigliano to La Banca with Beaufighters; and 524th, 525th and 526th Fighter Squadrons, 27th Fighter Group, move from La Banca (524th) and Marcianise (525th and 526th) to Ciampino with P-47s. MONDAY, 12 JUNE 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers hit bridges, viaducts, and rail lines at Collazone, Perugia, Foligno, Massa Lombarda, Pietrasanta, Cattolica, Pesaro, Arezzo and Bucine; light bombers hit Arcidosso and motor transport in the area; fighter-bombers are restricted by bad weather but attack several bridges and roads in the line of enemy retreat which at its farthest point is N and W of Viterbo; moves in Italy: HQ 86th Fighter Group and 527th Fighter Squadron from Marcianise to Ciampino with P-47s; 5th Combat Mapping Squadron, 3d Photographic Group (Reconnaissance), from Pomigliano to Nettuno with F-5s; 97th Bombardment Squadron (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light), from Vesuvius Airfield to Ponte Galeria; and 522d and 523d Fighter Squadrons, 27th Fighter Group, from Le Banca to Ciampino with P-47s. TUESDAY, 13 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 560+ B-17s and B-24s, most with fighter escorts, attack targets in Germany and Italy; B-17s attack aircraft component plants at Munich-Allach; B-24s marshalling yards at Innsbruck and Munich, Germany and the industrial area at Porto Marghera, Italy; they claim 30+ Luftwaffe aircraft shot down; 10 AAF aircraft are lost and several others are missing. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers bomb shipping at Leghorn with excellent results and score numerous hits on bridges, viaducts, rail lines, and roads in NC Italy; fighter-bombers continue to disrupt the German retreat over the entire area N of the battle zone as the British Eighth Army's 13 Corps pushes toward Orvieto and 10 Corps reaches Terni; 85th Bombardment Squadron (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light), moves from Vesuvius Airfield to Ponte Galeria with A-20s; and 314th Fighter Squadron, 324th Fighter Group, moves from Le Banca Airfield to Montalto Di Castro with P-40s. WEDNESDAY, 14 JUNE 1944 ARMY AIR FORCE, MTO: 72d Liaison, AAF, MTO, arrives at Oran, Algeria from the US with L-5s; first mission is in Aug 44. STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 660+ B-17s and B-24s attack targets in Czechoslovakia and Hungary; the B-17s attack oil refineries in Budapest, Hungary; the B-24s hit five oil targets, one at Parducice, Czechoslovakia and Petfurdo, Komarom, Osijek and Sisak, Hungary. P-38s, P-47s, and P-51s escort the bombers and P-38s strafe and dive-bomb the airfield at Kecskemet, Hungary. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers bomb several bridges and viaducts in NC Italy, with especially good results on a viaduct and railway bridge N of Arezzo; ships in Leghorn harbor also are hit; A-20s pound ammunition supplies; fighter-bombers continue to attack roads and bridges in and just N of the battle area (only a small number of German vehicles are seen) as US Fifth Army forces take Magliano and Orvieto falls to elements of the British Eighth Army; HQ 324th Fighter Group moves from Le Banca Airfield to Montalto Di Castro; and 416th Night Fighter Squadron, 62d Fighter Wing, based at Pomigliano, sends a detachment to Tre Cancello Landing Strip with Beaufighters. THURSDAY, 15 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Weather cancels bombing operations. P-51s and P-38s strafe La Jasse, Orange/Plan de Dieu, Orange/ Caritat, Avignon/Chateau-Blanc and Avignon/Pujaut Airfields in France. HQ 307th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) is disbanded at Bari, Italy and HQ 68th Tactical Reconnaissance Group is disbanded at Blida, Algeria. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers blast rail and road bridges in the La Spezia sector and in the area S of Florence; light bombers again hit ammunition supples; fighter-bombers and fighters hit bridges and roads N of the battlelines (again only scattered motor transport targets are available for strafing); US Fifth Army patrols move into Grosseto and the British Eighth Army pushes beyond Todi toward Perugia; 315th and 316th Fighter Squadrons, 324th Fighter Group, move from Le Banca Airfield to Montalto Di Castro with P-40s; and the detachment of the 346th Fighter Squadron, 350th Fighter Group, operating from Sidi Amor, Tunisia since 7 Feb, returns to base on Sardinia with P-39s. FRIDAY, 16 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Almost 600 bombers attack targets in Austria and Czechoslovakia; the B-17s attack the Kragan and Florisdorf oil refineries around Vienna; the B-24s bomb the industrial area at Bratislava, Czechoslovakia and the Lobau and Schwechat oil refineries and Winterhafen oil depot in the Vienna area. Between 200 and 250 fighters attack the formations and 15 AAF aircraft are shot down; the bombers and escorting fighters claim 70 aircraft destroyed. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, B-26s and B-25s hit rail and road bridges, viaduct and other communications targets at Casalecchio di Reno/Villa Vergano, Lissone, Viareggio, Pisa, Vernio, Grizzana and Pietrasanta; A-20s continue to hit ammunition supplies; fighter-bombers continue interdiction by hitting bridges, trucks, rail lines and other targets closer to the front, which now reaches across Italy from the W coast near Grosseto to the E coast in the vicinity of Macerata; and HQ 3d Photographic Group (Reconnaissance) moves from Pomigliano to Nettuno. SATURDAY, 17 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Operations are limited to reconnaissance missions. 99th Fighter Squadron, 332d Fighter Group (attached to 86th Fighter Group, Twelfth Air Force), moves from Ciampino to Orbetello, Italy with P-40s. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, except for a B-26 attack on 1 bridge and an A-20 raid on an ammunition dump, weather prevents completion of light and medium bomber missions; fighter-bombers are also restricted but manage to hit several gun positions, communications targets, boats, small ships, barges, and targets of opportunity in the battle area and at various other locations including Capo d'Enfola and other points on Elba Island (where French forces land and begin clearing the island), and Rio Marina; 12th Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron, 3d Photographic Group (Reconnaissance), moves from Pomigliano to Voltone with F-5s (detachment is operating from Nettuno); and 415th Night Fighter Squadron, 64th Fighter Wing, moves from La Banca to Valtone with Beaufighters. SUNDAY, 18 JUNE 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, bad weather grounds medium and light bombers; fighter-bombers and fighters are restricted to patrols, mainly over the Piombino area and island of Elba, during which several gun positions, boats, and barges are hit; 111th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, XII Tactical Air Command, moves from Galera to Voltone with F-6s; and 525th Fighter Squadron, 86th Fighter Group, moves from Ciampino to Orbetello with P-47s. MONDAY, 19 JUNE 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, weather again grounds light and medium bombers; fighter-bombers hit railroads, gun emplacements, factory and shipping in an N of the battle area at scattered points in the countryside and in and near the towns of Pontedera, Leghorn, Sestri Levante and Viareggio; and HQ 86th Fighter Group and 527th Fighter Squadron moves from Ciampinto to Orbetello with P-47s. TUESDAY, 20 JUNE 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, weather continues to hamper operations but 60+ medium bombers manage to attack rail targets between Genoa and La Spezia; fighter-bombers destroy several road bridges in the battle area and to the N, and damage several other road and rail bridges as the Allies' rapid advance slows down due to the enemy's ability to strengthen his position and form a delaying line across Italy to the S of the Gothic Line (Pisa-Rimini) where he is prepared to make a stand; fighter- bombers also damage a 20,000-ton aircraft carrier in Genoa harbor; and 526th Fighter Squadron, 86th Fighter Group, moves from Ciampino to Orbetello with P-47s. WEDNESDAY 21 JUNE 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers have excellent results against rail bridges in N and NC Italy, also hitting viaducts, road bridges, and other communications targets, and bombing ships at Leghorn harbor; light bombers again hit ammunition supply while fighter- bombers concentrate on rail and road bridges over a large area including locations in the vicinity of the Gothic Line and at points to the N. THURSDAY, 22 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Following 5 consecutive days of bad weather 600+ B-17s and B-24s bomb targets in N Italy; B-17s hit marshalling yards at Fornova di Taro, Modena and Parma; B-24s hit 6 marshalling yards and 2 bridges in Italy, an automobile factory at Turin and an automobile depot at Chivasso; fighters fly 250+ sorties in support of the missions. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, medium bombers attack railway bridges and viaducts, at Marzabotto, Boccheto, and Gricigliana; A-20s again hit ammunition supplies; fighter-bombers pound road and rail bridges, mainly in the Pisa area, and cut rail lines between Bologna and Pistoia; the detachment of the 12th Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron, 3d Photographic Group (Reconnaissance), at Nettuno returns to base at Voltone with F-5s; and 414th Night Fighter Squadron, 63d Fighter Wing, moves from Elmas to Alghero, Sardinia with Beaufighters. FRIDAY, 23 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 400+ B-17s and B-24s attack oil targets in Rumania; the B-17s hit oil refineries at Ploesti; the B-24s also hit oil refineries at Ploesti and oil storage at Guirgiu. 100+ US aircraft are shot down; the bombers and escorting fighters claim 30+ aircraft destroyed. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, weather cancels medium bomber operations; A-20s continue to attack ammunition supplies; fighter- bomber operations are restricted but P-47s hit rail communications at 4 different points in the battle area as a fierce struggle for Chiusi takes place; and 86th Bombardment Squadron (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light), moves from Ponte Galeria to Ombrone Airfield with A-20s. SATURDAY, 24 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 335 bombers attack targets in Rumania; B-17s attack the railroad bridge at Piatra; B-24s bomb the railroad repair depot at Craiova and oil refinery at Ploesti; 33 P-51s sweep the Ploesti-Bucharest area while other P-51s, P-38s, and P-47s fly 220+ sorties in support of the bombers; the bombers and fighters claim 20+ aircraft shot down; 10 US aircraft are downed and several others are missing. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, weather cancels medium bomber operations; fighter-bomber activity is restricted but P-47s attack several bridges, railway lines, guns, and other targets in the Lucca area and other points along and N of the battleline; 5th Combat Mapping Squadron, 3d Photographic Group (Reconnaissance), moves from Nettuno to Viterbo with F-5s; and 84th Bombardment Squadron (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light), moves from Ponte Galeria to Ombrone Airfield with A-20s. SUNDAY, 25 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 650+ bombers attack targets in France; B-17s attack the marshalling yard and oil installations at Sete; B-24s bomb the industrial area at Sete, the marshalling yard at Avignon and harbor facilities at Toulon; fighters fly almost 200 sorties in support; 1 fighter group strafes targets along the Fiume, Italy-Senje, Yugoslavia road and at other points on the Istrian peninsula. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, bad weather again prevents operations by medium bombers; light bombers hit enemy ammunition supply; fighter-bombers bomb the towns of San Quirico di Moriano and Castelflorentino and several rail lines and bridges in the battle area near the Gothic Line; Piombino falls to the US Fifth Army during the day, and the enemy withdraws from Chiusi during the night of 25/26 Jun after several days of resisting British Eighth Army forces attacking the town; and 345th and 346th Fighter Squadrons, 350th Fighter Group, move from Pomigliano and Sardinia respectively to Tarquinia and Pomigliano respectively with P-47s. MONDAY, 26 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 677 B-17s and B-24s attack targets in the Vienna, Austria area, hitting an aircraft factory at Schwechat, marshalling yard at Vienna/Floridsdorf, and oil refineries at Korneuburg, Vienna/Floridsdorf, Moosbierbaum, Schwechat, Winterhafen, and Lobau; fighters fly 260+ sorties in support; an estimated 150 to 175 enemy fighters attack the formations; nearly 30 US aircraft (mostly bombers) are lost; US claims total 60+ enemy fighters. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, bad weather grounds the medium bombers; fighter-bombers, operating on a reduced schedule, hit railroad targets and other targets in the battle area S of the Gothic Line; HQ 3d Photographic Group (Reconnaissance) moves from Pomigliano to Nettuno; and 85th Bombardment Squadron (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light), moves from Ponte Galeria to Ombrone Airfield with A-20s. TUESDAY, 27 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Around 300 bombers attack targets in Hungary, Poland and Yugoslavia; B-17s bomb marshalling yards at Budapest, Hungary; B-24s hit marshalling yards at Brod Yugoslavia and oil industry targets at Drohobycz, Poland; 75 to 90 enemy fighters attack the formations; 3 bombers are lost; the bombers and escorting fighters claim 30+ enemy planes shot down; 90 P-51s sweep Budapest area, claiming 7 fighters destroyed. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, continued bad weather cancels medium bomber operations; light bombers again hit ammunition supplies; fighter-bombers hit roads, bridges, rail lines, and other targets in and near the battleline; and HQ 47th Bombardment Group (Light) moves from Ponte Galeria to Ombrone Airfield. WEDNESDAY, 28 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): 229 B-24s bomb marshalling yards and 2 oil refineries at Bucharest, Rumania; 138 others hit Karlovo Airfield, Bulgaria; 40 fighters carry out a sweep over the Bucharest area while other fighters fly 230+ sorties in escort of the B-24s; 20+ enemy fighters are claimed shot down, mostly by the fighters during the sweep over Bucharest. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, bad weather cancels all light and medium bomber operations; fighter-bombers carry out rail-cutting missions N of the battleline in NC Italy; 7th Troop Carrier Squadron, 62d Troop Carrier Group, moves from Gaudo Airfield to Galera Airfield with C-47s; and 97th Bombardment Squadron (Light), 47th Bombardment Group (Light), moves from Ponte Galeria to Ombrone Airfield with A-20s. THURSDAY, 29 JUNE 1944 TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, fighter-bombers, medium, and light bombers attack ammunition dumps, viaducts', bridges', railroad cars, landing grounds, roads, motor transport, and other targets along the battleline in NC Italy and at various points to the N; HQ 51st Troop Carrier Wing moves from Catania, Sicily to Lido di Roma; and 4th Troop Carrier Squadron, 62d Troop Carrier Group, moves from Gaudo Airfield to Galera Airfield with C-47s. FRIDAY, 30 JUNE 1944 STRATEGIC OPERATIONS (Fifteenth Air Force): Bad weather causes 450+ bombers and 150+ fighters to abort missions. 188 B-17s and B-24s, escorted by 138 fighters, hit an airfield at Zagreb, Yugoslavia and targets of opportunity in Hungary and Yugoslavia, including marshalling yards at Kaposvar, Osztopan and Split, a highway bridge at Brac Island, airfield at Banjaluka, and the city of Budapest, Hungary. TACTICAL OPERATIONS (Twelfth Air Force): In Italy, weather again restricts medium bomber operations but B-25s attack the Pietrasanta railway bridge and Marradi viaduct and tunnel; fighter-bombers hit rail lines, bridges, railroad cars, guns, motor transport, and other targets along the battleline and the area to the N in the Pistoia area; HQ 62d Troop Carrier Group and 8th Troop Carrier Squadron move from Gaudo Airfield to Galera Airfield with C-47s.
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